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HXCOMM Use DEFHEADING() to define headings in both help text and texi
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HXCOMM Text between STEXI and ETEXI are copied to texi version and
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HXCOMM discarded from C version
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HXCOMM DEF(option, HAS_ARG/0, opt_enum, opt_help, arch_mask) is used to
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HXCOMM construct option structures, enums and help message for specified
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HXCOMM architectures.
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HXCOMM HXCOMM can be used for comments, discarded from both texi and C
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DEFHEADING(Standard options:)
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STEXI
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@table @option
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ETEXI
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DEF("help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_h,
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    "-h or -help     display this help and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -h
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@findex -h
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Display help and exit
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ETEXI
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DEF("version", 0, QEMU_OPTION_version,
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    "-version        display version information and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -version
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@findex -version
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Display version information and exit
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ETEXI
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DEF("M", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_M,
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    "-M machine      select emulated machine (-M ? for list)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -M @var{machine}
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@findex -M
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Select the emulated @var{machine} (@code{-M ?} for list)
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ETEXI
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DEF("cpu", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cpu,
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    "-cpu cpu        select CPU (-cpu ? for list)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -cpu @var{model}
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@findex -cpu
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Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)
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ETEXI
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DEF("smp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smp,
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    "-smp n[,maxcpus=cpus][,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets]\n"
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    "                set the number of CPUs to 'n' [default=1]\n"
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    "                maxcpus= maximum number of total cpus, including\n"
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    "                offline CPUs for hotplug, etc\n"
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    "                cores= number of CPU cores on one socket\n"
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    "                threads= number of threads on one CPU core\n"
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    "                sockets= number of discrete sockets in the system\n",
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        QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -smp @var{n}[,cores=@var{cores}][,threads=@var{threads}][,sockets=@var{sockets}][,maxcpus=@var{maxcpus}]
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@findex -smp
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Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
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CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs
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to 4.
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For the PC target, the number of @var{cores} per socket, the number
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of @var{threads} per cores and the total number of @var{sockets} can be
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specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values is
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given, the total number of CPUs @var{n} can be omitted. @var{maxcpus}
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specifies the maximum number of hotpluggable CPUs.
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ETEXI
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DEF("numa", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_numa,
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    "-numa node[,mem=size][,cpus=cpu[-cpu]][,nodeid=node]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -numa @var{opts}
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@findex -numa
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Simulate a multi node NUMA system. If mem and cpus are omitted, resources
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are split equally.
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ETEXI
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DEF("fda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fda,
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    "-fda/-fdb file  use 'file' as floppy disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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DEF("fdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -fda @var{file}
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@item -fdb @var{file}
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@findex -fda
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@findex -fdb
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Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
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use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
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ETEXI
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DEF("hda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hda,
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    "-hda/-hdb file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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DEF("hdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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DEF("hdc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdc,
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    "-hdc/-hdd file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 2/3 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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DEF("hdd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdd, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -hda @var{file}
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@item -hdb @var{file}
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@item -hdc @var{file}
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@item -hdd @var{file}
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@findex -hda
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@findex -hdb
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@findex -hdc
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@findex -hdd
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Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
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ETEXI
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DEF("cdrom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cdrom,
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    "-cdrom file     use 'file' as IDE cdrom image (cdrom is ide1 master)\n",
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    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -cdrom @var{file}
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@findex -cdrom
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Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and
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@option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
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using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
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ETEXI
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DEF("drive", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_drive,
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    "-drive [file=file][,if=type][,bus=n][,unit=m][,media=d][,index=i]\n"
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    "       [,cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]][,snapshot=on|off]\n"
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    "       [,cache=writethrough|writeback|none|unsafe][,format=f]\n"
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    "       [,serial=s][,addr=A][,id=name][,aio=threads|native]\n"
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    "       [,readonly=on|off]\n"
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    "                use 'file' as a drive image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -drive @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
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@findex -drive
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Define a new drive. Valid options are:
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@table @option
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@item file=@var{file}
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This option defines which disk image (@pxref{disk_images}) to use with
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this drive. If the filename contains comma, you must double it
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(for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file "my,file").
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@item if=@var{interface}
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This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.
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Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio.
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@item bus=@var{bus},unit=@var{unit}
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These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
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the unit id.
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@item index=@var{index}
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This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list
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of available connectors of a given interface type.
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@item media=@var{media}
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This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.
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@item cyls=@var{c},heads=@var{h},secs=@var{s}[,trans=@var{t}]
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These options have the same definition as they have in @option{-hdachs}.
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@item snapshot=@var{snapshot}
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@var{snapshot} is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see @option{-snapshot}).
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@item cache=@var{cache}
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@var{cache} is "none", "writeback", "unsafe", or "writethrough" and controls how the host cache is used to access block data.
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@item aio=@var{aio}
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@var{aio} is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and native Linux AIO.
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@item format=@var{format}
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Specify which disk @var{format} will be used rather than detecting
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the format.  Can be used to specifiy format=raw to avoid interpreting
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an untrusted format header.
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@item serial=@var{serial}
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This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device.
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@item addr=@var{addr}
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Specify the controller's PCI address (if=virtio only).
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@end table
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By default, writethrough caching is used for all block device.  This means that
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the host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification
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will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by
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the storage subsystem.
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Writeback caching will report data writes as completed as soon as the data is
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present in the host page cache.  This is safe as long as you trust your host.
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If your host crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience data
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corruption.
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The host page cache can be avoided entirely with @option{cache=none}.  This will
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attempt to do disk IO directly to the guests memory.  QEMU may still perform
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an internal copy of the data.
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Some block drivers perform badly with @option{cache=writethrough}, most notably,
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qcow2.  If performance is more important than correctness,
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@option{cache=writeback} should be used with qcow2.
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In case you don't care about data integrity over host failures, use
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cache=unsafe. This option tells qemu that it never needs to write any data
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to the disk but can instead keeps things in cache. If anything goes wrong,
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like your host losing power, the disk storage getting disconnected accidently,
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etc. you're image will most probably be rendered unusable.   When using
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the @option{-snapshot} option, unsafe caching is always used.
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Instead of @option{-cdrom} you can use:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom
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@end example
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Instead of @option{-hda}, @option{-hdb}, @option{-hdc}, @option{-hdd}, you can
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use:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
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qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
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qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
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qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk
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@end example
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You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
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@end example
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If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:
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@example
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qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
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@end example
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You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6
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@end example
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Instead of @option{-fda}, @option{-fdb}, you can use:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
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qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy
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@end example
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By default, @var{interface} is "ide" and @var{index} is automatically
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incremented:
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@example
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qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"
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@end example
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is interpreted like:
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@example
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qemu -hda a -hdb b
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@end example
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ETEXI
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DEF("set", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_set,
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    "-set group.id.arg=value\n"
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    "                set <arg> parameter for item <id> of type <group>\n"
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    "                i.e. -set drive.$id.file=/path/to/image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -set
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@findex -set
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TODO
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ETEXI
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DEF("global", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_global,
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    "-global driver.property=value\n"
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    "                set a global default for a driver property\n",
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    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -global
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@findex -global
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TODO
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ETEXI
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DEF("mtdblock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mtdblock,
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    "-mtdblock file  use 'file' as on-board Flash memory image\n",
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    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -mtdblock @var{file}
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@findex -mtdblock
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Use @var{file} as on-board Flash memory image.
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ETEXI
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DEF("sd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_sd,
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    "-sd file        use 'file' as SecureDigital card image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -sd @var{file}
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@findex -sd
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Use @var{file} as SecureDigital card image.
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ETEXI
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DEF("pflash", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pflash,
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    "-pflash file    use 'file' as a parallel flash image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -pflash @var{file}
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@findex -pflash
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Use @var{file} as a parallel flash image.
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ETEXI
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DEF("boot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_boot,
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    "-boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]\n"
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    "                'drives': floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), network (n)\n",
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    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -boot [order=@var{drives}][,once=@var{drives}][,menu=on|off]
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@findex -boot
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Specify boot order @var{drives} as a string of drive letters. Valid
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drive letters depend on the target achitecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b
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(floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot
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from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the default. To apply a
292
particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
293
@option{once}.
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295
Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via @option{menu=on} as far
296
as firmware/BIOS supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.
297

    
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@example
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# try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
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qemu -boot order=nc
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# boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
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qemu -boot once=d
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@end example
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305
Note: The legacy format '-boot @var{drives}' is still supported but its
306
use is discouraged as it may be removed from future versions.
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ETEXI
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DEF("snapshot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_snapshot,
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    "-snapshot       write to temporary files instead of disk image files\n",
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    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -snapshot
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@findex -snapshot
315
Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
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the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
317
the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
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ETEXI
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DEF("m", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_m,
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    "-m megs         set virtual RAM size to megs MB [default="
322
    stringify(DEFAULT_RAM_SIZE) "]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -m @var{megs}
325
@findex -m
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Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.  Optionally,
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a suffix of ``M'' or ``G'' can be used to signify a value in megabytes or
328
gigabytes respectively.
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ETEXI
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DEF("mem-path", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mempath,
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    "-mem-path FILE  provide backing storage for guest RAM\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
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@item -mem-path @var{path}
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Allocate guest RAM from a temporarily created file in @var{path}.
336
ETEXI
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338
#ifdef MAP_POPULATE
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DEF("mem-prealloc", 0, QEMU_OPTION_mem_prealloc,
340
    "-mem-prealloc   preallocate guest memory (use with -mem-path)\n",
341
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
342
STEXI
343
@item -mem-prealloc
344
Preallocate memory when using -mem-path.
345
ETEXI
346
#endif
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348
DEF("k", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_k,
349
    "-k language     use keyboard layout (for example 'fr' for French)\n",
350
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
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STEXI
352
@item -k @var{language}
353
@findex -k
354
Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
355
French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
356
keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
357
display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
358
hosts.
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360
The available layouts are:
361
@example
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ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
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da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
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de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr
365
@end example
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367
The default is @code{en-us}.
368
ETEXI
369

    
370

    
371
DEF("audio-help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_audio_help,
372
    "-audio-help     print list of audio drivers and their options\n",
373
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
374
STEXI
375
@item -audio-help
376
@findex -audio-help
377
Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
378
parameters.
379
ETEXI
380

    
381
DEF("soundhw", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_soundhw,
382
    "-soundhw c1,... enable audio support\n"
383
    "                and only specified sound cards (comma separated list)\n"
384
    "                use -soundhw ? to get the list of supported cards\n"
385
    "                use -soundhw all to enable all of them\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
386
STEXI
387
@item -soundhw @var{card1}[,@var{card2},...] or -soundhw all
388
@findex -soundhw
389
Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
390
available sound hardware.
391

    
392
@example
393
qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
394
qemu -soundhw es1370 disk.img
395
qemu -soundhw ac97 disk.img
396
qemu -soundhw all disk.img
397
qemu -soundhw ?
398
@end example
399

    
400
Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might
401
require manually specifying clocking.
402

    
403
@example
404
modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000
405
@end example
406
ETEXI
407

    
408
STEXI
409
@end table
410
ETEXI
411

    
412
DEF("usb", 0, QEMU_OPTION_usb,
413
    "-usb            enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)\n",
414
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
415
STEXI
416
USB options:
417
@table @option
418

    
419
@item -usb
420
@findex -usb
421
Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
422
ETEXI
423

    
424
DEF("usbdevice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_usbdevice,
425
    "-usbdevice name add the host or guest USB device 'name'\n",
426
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
427
STEXI
428

    
429
@item -usbdevice @var{devname}
430
@findex -usbdevice
431
Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
432

    
433
@table @option
434

    
435
@item mouse
436
Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
437

    
438
@item tablet
439
Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This
440
means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the
441
mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
442

    
443
@item disk:[format=@var{format}]:@var{file}
444
Mass storage device based on file. The optional @var{format} argument
445
will be used rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy
446
@code{format=raw} to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.
447

    
448
@item host:@var{bus}.@var{addr}
449
Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus}.@var{addr} (Linux only).
450

    
451
@item host:@var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
452
Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
453
(Linux only).
454

    
455
@item serial:[vendorid=@var{vendor_id}][,productid=@var{product_id}]:@var{dev}
456
Serial converter to host character device @var{dev}, see @code{-serial} for the
457
available devices.
458

    
459
@item braille
460
Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
461
or fake device.
462

    
463
@item net:@var{options}
464
Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.
465

    
466
@end table
467
ETEXI
468

    
469
DEF("device", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_device,
470
    "-device driver[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
471
    "                add device (based on driver)\n"
472
    "                prop=value,... sets driver properties\n"
473
    "                use -device ? to print all possible drivers\n"
474
    "                use -device driver,? to print all possible properties\n",
475
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
476
STEXI
477
@item -device @var{driver}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
478
@findex -device
479
Add device @var{driver}.  @var{prop}=@var{value} sets driver
480
properties.  Valid properties depend on the driver.  To get help on
481
possible drivers and properties, use @code{-device ?} and
482
@code{-device @var{driver},?}.
483
ETEXI
484

    
485
DEFHEADING(File system options:)
486

    
487
DEF("fsdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fsdev,
488
    "-fsdev local,id=id,path=path,security_model=[mapped|passthrough|none]\n",
489
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
490

    
491
STEXI
492

    
493
The general form of a File system device option is:
494
@table @option
495

    
496
@item -fsdev @var{fstype} ,id=@var{id} [,@var{options}]
497
@findex -fsdev
498
Fstype is one of:
499
@option{local},
500
The specific Fstype will determine the applicable options.
501

    
502
Options to each backend are described below.
503

    
504
@item -fsdev local ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path} ,security_model=@var{security_model}
505

    
506
Create a file-system-"device" for local-filesystem.
507

    
508
@option{local} is only available on Linux.
509

    
510
@option{path} specifies the path to be exported. @option{path} is required.
511

    
512
@option{security_model} specifies the security model to be followed.
513
@option{security_model} is required.
514

    
515
@end table
516
ETEXI
517

    
518
DEFHEADING(Virtual File system pass-through options:)
519

    
520
DEF("virtfs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtfs,
521
    "-virtfs local,path=path,mount_tag=tag,security_model=[mapped|passthrough|none]\n",
522
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
523

    
524
STEXI
525

    
526
The general form of a Virtual File system pass-through option is:
527
@table @option
528

    
529
@item -virtfs @var{fstype} [,@var{options}]
530
@findex -virtfs
531
Fstype is one of:
532
@option{local},
533
The specific Fstype will determine the applicable options.
534

    
535
Options to each backend are described below.
536

    
537
@item -virtfs local ,path=@var{path} ,mount_tag=@var{mount_tag} ,security_model=@var{security_model}
538

    
539
Create a Virtual file-system-pass through for local-filesystem.
540

    
541
@option{local} is only available on Linux.
542

    
543
@option{path} specifies the path to be exported. @option{path} is required.
544

    
545
@option{security_model} specifies the security model to be followed.
546
@option{security_model} is required.
547

    
548

    
549
@option{mount_tag} specifies the tag with which the exported file is mounted.
550
@option{mount_tag} is required.
551

    
552
@end table
553
ETEXI
554

    
555
DEFHEADING()
556

    
557
DEF("name", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_name,
558
    "-name string1[,process=string2]\n"
559
    "                set the name of the guest\n"
560
    "                string1 sets the window title and string2 the process name (on Linux)\n",
561
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
562
STEXI
563
@item -name @var{name}
564
@findex -name
565
Sets the @var{name} of the guest.
566
This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
567
The @var{name} will also be used for the VNC server.
568
Also optionally set the top visible process name in Linux.
569
ETEXI
570

    
571
DEF("uuid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_uuid,
572
    "-uuid %08x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%012x\n"
573
    "                specify machine UUID\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
574
STEXI
575
@item -uuid @var{uuid}
576
@findex -uuid
577
Set system UUID.
578
ETEXI
579

    
580
STEXI
581
@end table
582
ETEXI
583

    
584
DEFHEADING()
585

    
586
DEFHEADING(Display options:)
587

    
588
STEXI
589
@table @option
590
ETEXI
591

    
592
DEF("nographic", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nographic,
593
    "-nographic      disable graphical output and redirect serial I/Os to console\n",
594
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
595
STEXI
596
@item -nographic
597
@findex -nographic
598
Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
599
you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
600
command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
601
the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
602
with a serial console.
603
ETEXI
604

    
605
#ifdef CONFIG_CURSES
606
DEF("curses", 0, QEMU_OPTION_curses,
607
    "-curses         use a curses/ncurses interface instead of SDL\n",
608
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
609
#endif
610
STEXI
611
@item -curses
612
@findex curses
613
Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
614
QEMU can display the VGA output when in text mode using a
615
curses/ncurses interface.  Nothing is displayed in graphical mode.
616
ETEXI
617

    
618
#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
619
DEF("no-frame", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_frame,
620
    "-no-frame       open SDL window without a frame and window decorations\n",
621
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
622
#endif
623
STEXI
624
@item -no-frame
625
@findex -no-frame
626
Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole
627
available screen space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop
628
workspace more convenient.
629
ETEXI
630

    
631
#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
632
DEF("alt-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_alt_grab,
633
    "-alt-grab       use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
634
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
635
#endif
636
STEXI
637
@item -alt-grab
638
@findex -alt-grab
639
Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
640
ETEXI
641

    
642
#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
643
DEF("ctrl-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_ctrl_grab,
644
    "-ctrl-grab      use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
645
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
646
#endif
647
STEXI
648
@item -ctrl-grab
649
@findex -ctrl-grab
650
Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
651
ETEXI
652

    
653
#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
654
DEF("no-quit", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_quit,
655
    "-no-quit        disable SDL window close capability\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
656
#endif
657
STEXI
658
@item -no-quit
659
@findex -no-quit
660
Disable SDL window close capability.
661
ETEXI
662

    
663
#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
664
DEF("sdl", 0, QEMU_OPTION_sdl,
665
    "-sdl            enable SDL\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
666
#endif
667
STEXI
668
@item -sdl
669
@findex -sdl
670
Enable SDL.
671
ETEXI
672

    
673
DEF("spice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_spice,
674
    "-spice <args>   enable spice\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
675
STEXI
676
@item -spice @var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]
677
@findex -spice
678
Enable the spice remote desktop protocol. Valid options are
679

    
680
@table @option
681

    
682
@item port=<nr>
683
Set the TCP port spice is listening on for plaintext channels.
684

    
685
@item password=<secret>
686
Set the password you need to authenticate.
687

    
688
@item disable-ticketing
689
Allow client connects without authentication.
690

    
691
@item tls-port=<nr>
692
Set the TCP port spice is listening on for encrypted channels.
693

    
694
@item x509-dir=<dir>
695
Set the x509 file directory. Expects same filenames as -vnc $display,x509=$dir
696

    
697
@item x509-key-file=<file>
698
@item x509-key-password=<file>
699
@item x509-cert-file=<file>
700
@item x509-cacert-file=<file>
701
@item x509-dh-key-file=<file>
702
The x509 file names can also be configured individually.
703

    
704
@item tls-ciphers=<list>
705
Specify which ciphers to use.
706

    
707
@end table
708
ETEXI
709

    
710
DEF("portrait", 0, QEMU_OPTION_portrait,
711
    "-portrait       rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD)\n",
712
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
713
STEXI
714
@item -portrait
715
@findex -portrait
716
Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).
717
ETEXI
718

    
719
DEF("vga", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vga,
720
    "-vga [std|cirrus|vmware|xenfb|none]\n"
721
    "                select video card type\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
722
STEXI
723
@item -vga @var{type}
724
@findex -vga
725
Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for @var{type} are
726
@table @option
727
@item cirrus
728
Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from
729
Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal
730
performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.
731
(This one is the default)
732
@item std
733
Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions.  If your guest OS
734
supports the VESA 2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want
735
to use high resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use
736
this option.
737
@item vmware
738
VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently
739
recent XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this
740
card.
741
@item none
742
Disable VGA card.
743
@end table
744
ETEXI
745

    
746
DEF("full-screen", 0, QEMU_OPTION_full_screen,
747
    "-full-screen    start in full screen\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
748
STEXI
749
@item -full-screen
750
@findex -full-screen
751
Start in full screen.
752
ETEXI
753

    
754
DEF("g", 1, QEMU_OPTION_g ,
755
    "-g WxH[xDEPTH]  Set the initial graphical resolution and depth\n",
756
    QEMU_ARCH_PPC | QEMU_ARCH_SPARC)
757
STEXI
758
@item -g @var{width}x@var{height}[x@var{depth}]
759
@findex -g
760
Set the initial graphical resolution and depth (PPC, SPARC only).
761
ETEXI
762

    
763
DEF("vnc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vnc ,
764
    "-vnc display    start a VNC server on display\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
765
STEXI
766
@item -vnc @var{display}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
767
@findex -vnc
768
Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
769
you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{display} and redirect the VGA
770
display over the VNC session.  It is very useful to enable the usb
771
tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
772
tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
773
parameter to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid
774
syntax for the @var{display} is
775

    
776
@table @option
777

    
778
@item @var{host}:@var{d}
779

    
780
TCP connections will only be allowed from @var{host} on display @var{d}.
781
By convention the TCP port is 5900+@var{d}. Optionally, @var{host} can
782
be omitted in which case the server will accept connections from any host.
783

    
784
@item unix:@var{path}
785

    
786
Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where @var{path} is the
787
location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.
788

    
789
@item none
790

    
791
VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor @code{change} command
792
can be used to later start the VNC server.
793

    
794
@end table
795

    
796
Following the @var{display} value there may be one or more @var{option} flags
797
separated by commas. Valid options are
798

    
799
@table @option
800

    
801
@item reverse
802

    
803
Connect to a listening VNC client via a ``reverse'' connection. The
804
client is specified by the @var{display}. For reverse network
805
connections (@var{host}:@var{d},@code{reverse}), the @var{d} argument
806
is a TCP port number, not a display number.
807

    
808
@item password
809

    
810
Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.
811
The password must be set separately using the @code{change} command in the
812
@ref{pcsys_monitor}
813

    
814
@item tls
815

    
816
Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This
817
uses anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle
818
attack. It is recommended that this option be combined with either the
819
@option{x509} or @option{x509verify} options.
820

    
821
@item x509=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
822

    
823
Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
824
for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
825
to the client. It is recommended that a password be set on the VNC server
826
to provide authentication of the client when this is used. The path following
827
this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from.
828
See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating certificates.
829

    
830
@item x509verify=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
831

    
832
Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
833
for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
834
to the client, and request that the client send its own x509 certificate.
835
The server will validate the client's certificate against the CA certificate,
836
and reject clients when validation fails. If the certificate authority is
837
trusted, this is a sufficient authentication mechanism. You may still wish
838
to set a password on the VNC server as a second authentication layer. The
839
path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to
840
be loaded from. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating
841
certificates.
842

    
843
@item sasl
844

    
845
Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.
846
The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the
847
system / user's SASL configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This
848
is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an
849
unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used
850
to make it search alternate locations for the service config.
851
While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI),
852
it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and
853
'x509' settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This
854
ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication
855
credentials. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on using
856
SASL authentication.
857

    
858
@item acl
859

    
860
Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate
861
and SASL party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the
862
certificate's distinguished name. This is something that looks like
863
@code{C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob}. For SASL party, the ACL check is
864
made against the username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may
865
include a realm component, eg @code{bob} or @code{bob@@EXAMPLE.COM}.
866
When the @option{acl} flag is set, the initial access list will be
867
empty, with a @code{deny} policy. Thus no one will be allowed to
868
use the VNC server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be
869
achieved using the @code{acl} monitor command.
870

    
871
@item lossy
872

    
873
Enable lossy compression methods (gradient, JPEG, ...). If this
874
option is set, VNC client may receive lossy framebuffer updates
875
depending on its encoding settings. Enabling this option can save
876
a lot of bandwidth at the expense of quality.
877

    
878
@end table
879
ETEXI
880

    
881
STEXI
882
@end table
883
ETEXI
884

    
885
DEFHEADING()
886

    
887
DEFHEADING(i386 target only:)
888
STEXI
889
@table @option
890
ETEXI
891

    
892
DEF("win2k-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_win2k_hack,
893
    "-win2k-hack     use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug\n",
894
    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
895
STEXI
896
@item -win2k-hack
897
@findex -win2k-hack
898
Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
899
Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
900
slows down the IDE transfers).
901
ETEXI
902

    
903
HXCOMM Deprecated by -rtc
904
DEF("rtc-td-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_rtc_td_hack, "", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
905

    
906
DEF("no-fd-bootchk", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_fd_bootchk,
907
    "-no-fd-bootchk  disable boot signature checking for floppy disks\n",
908
    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
909
STEXI
910
@item -no-fd-bootchk
911
@findex -no-fd-bootchk
912
Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
913
be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
914
TODO: check reference to Bochs BIOS.
915
ETEXI
916

    
917
DEF("no-acpi", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_acpi,
918
           "-no-acpi        disable ACPI\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
919
STEXI
920
@item -no-acpi
921
@findex -no-acpi
922
Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
923
it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
924
only).
925
ETEXI
926

    
927
DEF("no-hpet", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_hpet,
928
    "-no-hpet        disable HPET\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
929
STEXI
930
@item -no-hpet
931
@findex -no-hpet
932
Disable HPET support.
933
ETEXI
934

    
935
DEF("balloon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_balloon,
936
    "-balloon none   disable balloon device\n"
937
    "-balloon virtio[,addr=str]\n"
938
    "                enable virtio balloon device (default)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
939
STEXI
940
@item -balloon none
941
@findex -balloon
942
Disable balloon device.
943
@item -balloon virtio[,addr=@var{addr}]
944
Enable virtio balloon device (default), optionally with PCI address
945
@var{addr}.
946
ETEXI
947

    
948
DEF("acpitable", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_acpitable,
949
    "-acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n][,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]\n"
950
    "                ACPI table description\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
951
STEXI
952
@item -acpitable [sig=@var{str}][,rev=@var{n}][,oem_id=@var{str}][,oem_table_id=@var{str}][,oem_rev=@var{n}] [,asl_compiler_id=@var{str}][,asl_compiler_rev=@var{n}][,data=@var{file1}[:@var{file2}]...]
953
@findex -acpitable
954
Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.
955
ETEXI
956

    
957
DEF("smbios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smbios,
958
    "-smbios file=binary\n"
959
    "                load SMBIOS entry from binary file\n"
960
    "-smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d]\n"
961
    "                specify SMBIOS type 0 fields\n"
962
    "-smbios type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
963
    "              [,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]\n"
964
    "                specify SMBIOS type 1 fields\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
965
STEXI
966
@item -smbios file=@var{binary}
967
@findex -smbios
968
Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.
969

    
970
@item -smbios type=0[,vendor=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,date=@var{str}][,release=@var{%d.%d}]
971
@findex -smbios
972
Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields
973

    
974
@item -smbios type=1[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,product=@var{str}] [,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,uuid=@var{uuid}][,sku=@var{str}] [,family=@var{str}]
975
Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields
976
ETEXI
977

    
978
DEFHEADING()
979
STEXI
980
@end table
981
ETEXI
982

    
983
DEFHEADING(Network options:)
984
STEXI
985
@table @option
986
ETEXI
987

    
988
HXCOMM Legacy slirp options (now moved to -net user):
989
#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
990
DEF("tftp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tftp, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
991
DEF("bootp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bootp, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
992
DEF("redir", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_redir, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
993
#ifndef _WIN32
994
DEF("smb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
995
#endif
996
#endif
997

    
998
DEF("net", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_net,
999
    "-net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=str][,addr=str][,vectors=v]\n"
1000
    "                create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN 'n'\n"
1001
#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
1002
    "-net user[,vlan=n][,name=str][,net=addr[/mask]][,host=addr][,restrict=y|n]\n"
1003
    "         [,hostname=host][,dhcpstart=addr][,dns=addr][,tftp=dir][,bootfile=f]\n"
1004
    "         [,hostfwd=rule][,guestfwd=rule]"
1005
#ifndef _WIN32
1006
                                             "[,smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]]\n"
1007
#endif
1008
    "                connect the user mode network stack to VLAN 'n', configure its\n"
1009
    "                DHCP server and enabled optional services\n"
1010
#endif
1011
#ifdef _WIN32
1012
    "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str],ifname=name\n"
1013
    "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n'\n"
1014
#else
1015
    "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile][,sndbuf=nbytes][,vnet_hdr=on|off][,vhost=on|off][,vhostfd=h]\n"
1016
    "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n' and use the\n"
1017
    "                network scripts 'file' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_SCRIPT ")\n"
1018
    "                and 'dfile' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_DOWN_SCRIPT ")\n"
1019
    "                use '[down]script=no' to disable script execution\n"
1020
    "                use 'fd=h' to connect to an already opened TAP interface\n"
1021
    "                use 'sndbuf=nbytes' to limit the size of the send buffer (the\n"
1022
    "                default of 'sndbuf=1048576' can be disabled using 'sndbuf=0')\n"
1023
    "                use vnet_hdr=off to avoid enabling the IFF_VNET_HDR tap flag\n"
1024
    "                use vnet_hdr=on to make the lack of IFF_VNET_HDR support an error condition\n"
1025
    "                use vhost=on to enable experimental in kernel accelerator\n"
1026
    "                use 'vhostfd=h' to connect to an already opened vhost net device\n"
1027
#endif
1028
    "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]\n"
1029
    "                connect the vlan 'n' to another VLAN using a socket connection\n"
1030
    "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]\n"
1031
    "                connect the vlan 'n' to multicast maddr and port\n"
1032
#ifdef CONFIG_VDE
1033
    "-net vde[,vlan=n][,name=str][,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]\n"
1034
    "                connect the vlan 'n' to port 'n' of a vde switch running\n"
1035
    "                on host and listening for incoming connections on 'socketpath'.\n"
1036
    "                Use group 'groupname' and mode 'octalmode' to change default\n"
1037
    "                ownership and permissions for communication port.\n"
1038
#endif
1039
    "-net dump[,vlan=n][,file=f][,len=n]\n"
1040
    "                dump traffic on vlan 'n' to file 'f' (max n bytes per packet)\n"
1041
    "-net none       use it alone to have zero network devices. If no -net option\n"
1042
    "                is provided, the default is '-net nic -net user'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1043
DEF("netdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_netdev,
1044
    "-netdev ["
1045
#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
1046
    "user|"
1047
#endif
1048
    "tap|"
1049
#ifdef CONFIG_VDE
1050
    "vde|"
1051
#endif
1052
    "socket],id=str[,option][,option][,...]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1053
STEXI
1054
@item -net nic[,vlan=@var{n}][,macaddr=@var{mac}][,model=@var{type}] [,name=@var{name}][,addr=@var{addr}][,vectors=@var{v}]
1055
@findex -net
1056
Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
1057
= 0 is the default). The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC
1058
target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed to @var{mac}, the
1059
device address set to @var{addr} (PCI cards only),
1060
and a @var{name} can be assigned for use in monitor commands.
1061
Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number @var{v} of MSI-X vectors
1062
that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set
1063
@var{v} = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no @option{-net} option is specified, a single
1064
NIC is created.  Qemu can emulate several different models of network card.
1065
Valid values for @var{type} are
1066
@code{virtio}, @code{i82551}, @code{i82557b}, @code{i82559er},
1067
@code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{pcnet}, @code{rtl8139},
1068
@code{e1000}, @code{smc91c111}, @code{lance} and @code{mcf_fec}.
1069
Not all devices are supported on all targets.  Use -net nic,model=?
1070
for a list of available devices for your target.
1071

    
1072
@item -net user[,@var{option}][,@var{option}][,...]
1073
Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
1074
privilege to run. Valid options are:
1075

    
1076
@table @option
1077
@item vlan=@var{n}
1078
Connect user mode stack to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n} = 0 is the default).
1079

    
1080
@item name=@var{name}
1081
Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.
1082

    
1083
@item net=@var{addr}[/@var{mask}]
1084
Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask,
1085
either in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is
1086
10.0.2.0/8.
1087

    
1088
@item host=@var{addr}
1089
Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the
1090
guest network, i.e. x.x.x.2.
1091

    
1092
@item restrict=y|yes|n|no
1093
If this options is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be
1094
able to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host
1095
to the outside. This option does not affect explicitly set forwarding rule.
1096

    
1097
@item hostname=@var{name}
1098
Specifies the client hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
1099

    
1100
@item dhcpstart=@var{addr}
1101
Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default
1102
is the 16th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.16 to x.x.x.31.
1103

    
1104
@item dns=@var{addr}
1105
Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must
1106
be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network,
1107
i.e. x.x.x.3.
1108

    
1109
@item tftp=@var{dir}
1110
When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
1111
server. The files in @var{dir} will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.
1112
The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command
1113
@code{bin} of the Unix TFTP client).
1114

    
1115
@item bootfile=@var{file}
1116
When using the user mode network stack, broadcast @var{file} as the BOOTP
1117
filename. In conjunction with @option{tftp}, this can be used to network boot
1118
a guest from a local directory.
1119

    
1120
Example (using pxelinux):
1121
@example
1122
qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -net user,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0
1123
@end example
1124

    
1125
@item smb=@var{dir}[,smbserver=@var{addr}]
1126
When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
1127
server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{@var{dir}}
1128
transparently. The IP address of the SMB server can be set to @var{addr}. By
1129
default the 4th IP in the guest network is used, i.e. x.x.x.4.
1130

    
1131
In the guest Windows OS, the line:
1132
@example
1133
10.0.2.4 smbserver
1134
@end example
1135
must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
1136
or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
1137

    
1138
Then @file{@var{dir}} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
1139

    
1140
Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
1141
@file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd versions from
1142
Red Hat 9, Fedora Core 3 and OpenSUSE 11.x.
1143

    
1144
@item hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[@var{hostaddr}]:@var{hostport}-[@var{guestaddr}]:@var{guestport}
1145
Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port @var{hostport} to
1146
the guest IP address @var{guestaddr} on guest port @var{guestport}. If
1147
@var{guestaddr} is not specified, its value is x.x.x.15 (default first address
1148
given by the built-in DHCP server). By specifying @var{hostaddr}, the rule can
1149
be bound to a specific host interface. If no connection type is set, TCP is
1150
used. This option can be given multiple times.
1151

    
1152
For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
1153
screen 0, use the following:
1154

    
1155
@example
1156
# on the host
1157
qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000 [...]
1158
# this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
1159
xterm -display :1
1160
@end example
1161

    
1162
To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
1163
the guest, use the following:
1164

    
1165
@example
1166
# on the host
1167
qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp::5555-:23 [...]
1168
telnet localhost 5555
1169
@end example
1170

    
1171
Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
1172
connect to the guest telnet server.
1173

    
1174
@item guestfwd=[tcp]:@var{server}:@var{port}-@var{dev}
1175
Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address @var{server} on port @var{port}
1176
to the character device @var{dev}. This option can be given multiple times.
1177

    
1178
@end table
1179

    
1180
Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still
1181
processed and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration
1182
syntax gives undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged
1183
as they will be removed from future versions.
1184

    
1185
@item -net tap[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,ifname=@var{name}] [,script=@var{file}][,downscript=@var{dfile}]
1186
Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n}, use
1187
the network script @var{file} to configure it and the network script
1188
@var{dfile} to deconfigure it. If @var{name} is not provided, the OS
1189
automatically provides one. @option{fd}=@var{h} can be used to specify
1190
the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. The default network
1191
configure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup} and the default network
1192
deconfigure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifdown}. Use @option{script=no}
1193
or @option{downscript=no} to disable script execution. Example:
1194

    
1195
@example
1196
qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
1197
@end example
1198

    
1199
More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
1200
@example
1201
qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
1202
               -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
1203
@end example
1204

    
1205
@item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}] [,listen=[@var{host}]:@var{port}][,connect=@var{host}:@var{port}]
1206

    
1207
Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
1208
machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
1209
specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
1210
(@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
1211
another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd}=@var{h}
1212
specifies an already opened TCP socket.
1213

    
1214
Example:
1215
@example
1216
# launch a first QEMU instance
1217
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1218
               -net socket,listen=:1234
1219
# connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
1220
# of the first instance
1221
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
1222
               -net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234
1223
@end example
1224

    
1225
@item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}] [,mcast=@var{maddr}:@var{port}]
1226

    
1227
Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
1228
machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
1229
every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
1230
NOTES:
1231
@enumerate
1232
@item
1233
Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
1234
correct multicast setup for these hosts).
1235
@item
1236
mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
1237
@url{http://user-mode-linux.sf.net}.
1238
@item
1239
Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
1240
@end enumerate
1241

    
1242
Example:
1243
@example
1244
# launch one QEMU instance
1245
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1246
               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1247
# launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1248
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
1249
               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1250
# launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1251
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
1252
               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1253
@end example
1254

    
1255
Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
1256
@example
1257
# launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
1258
# is UML's default)
1259
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1260
               -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
1261
# launch UML
1262
/path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
1263
@end example
1264

    
1265
@item -net vde[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,sock=@var{socketpath}] [,port=@var{n}][,group=@var{groupname}][,mode=@var{octalmode}]
1266
Connect VLAN @var{n} to PORT @var{n} of a vde switch running on host and
1267
listening for incoming connections on @var{socketpath}. Use GROUP @var{groupname}
1268
and MODE @var{octalmode} to change default ownership and permissions for
1269
communication port. This option is available only if QEMU has been compiled
1270
with vde support enabled.
1271

    
1272
Example:
1273
@example
1274
# launch vde switch
1275
vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
1276
# launch QEMU instance
1277
qemu linux.img -net nic -net vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch
1278
@end example
1279

    
1280
@item -net dump[,vlan=@var{n}][,file=@var{file}][,len=@var{len}]
1281
Dump network traffic on VLAN @var{n} to file @var{file} (@file{qemu-vlan0.pcap} by default).
1282
At most @var{len} bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored. The file format is
1283
libpcap, so it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.
1284

    
1285
@item -net none
1286
Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
1287
override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
1288
is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
1289

    
1290
@end table
1291
ETEXI
1292

    
1293
DEFHEADING()
1294

    
1295
DEFHEADING(Character device options:)
1296

    
1297
DEF("chardev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chardev,
1298
    "-chardev null,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1299
    "-chardev socket,id=id[,host=host],port=host[,to=to][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay]\n"
1300
    "         [,server][,nowait][,telnet][,mux=on|off] (tcp)\n"
1301
    "-chardev socket,id=id,path=path[,server][,nowait][,telnet],[mux=on|off] (unix)\n"
1302
    "-chardev udp,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,localaddr=localaddr]\n"
1303
    "         [,localport=localport][,ipv4][,ipv6][,mux=on|off]\n"
1304
    "-chardev msmouse,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1305
    "-chardev vc,id=id[[,width=width][,height=height]][[,cols=cols][,rows=rows]]\n"
1306
    "         [,mux=on|off]\n"
1307
    "-chardev file,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1308
    "-chardev pipe,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1309
#ifdef _WIN32
1310
    "-chardev console,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1311
    "-chardev serial,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1312
#else
1313
    "-chardev pty,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1314
    "-chardev stdio,id=id[,mux=on|off][,signal=on|off]\n"
1315
#endif
1316
#ifdef CONFIG_BRLAPI
1317
    "-chardev braille,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1318
#endif
1319
#if defined(__linux__) || defined(__sun__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
1320
        || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
1321
    "-chardev tty,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1322
#endif
1323
#if defined(__linux__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
1324
    "-chardev parport,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1325
#endif
1326
    , QEMU_ARCH_ALL
1327
)
1328

    
1329
STEXI
1330

    
1331
The general form of a character device option is:
1332
@table @option
1333

    
1334
@item -chardev @var{backend} ,id=@var{id} [,mux=on|off] [,@var{options}]
1335
@findex -chardev
1336
Backend is one of:
1337
@option{null},
1338
@option{socket},
1339
@option{udp},
1340
@option{msmouse},
1341
@option{vc},
1342
@option{file},
1343
@option{pipe},
1344
@option{console},
1345
@option{serial},
1346
@option{pty},
1347
@option{stdio},
1348
@option{braille},
1349
@option{tty},
1350
@option{parport}.
1351
The specific backend will determine the applicable options.
1352

    
1353
All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.
1354
It is used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.
1355

    
1356
A character device may be used in multiplexing mode by multiple front-ends.
1357
The key sequence of @key{Control-a} and @key{c} will rotate the input focus
1358
between attached front-ends. Specify @option{mux=on} to enable this mode.
1359

    
1360
Options to each backend are described below.
1361

    
1362
@item -chardev null ,id=@var{id}
1363
A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it
1364
receives. The null backend does not take any options.
1365

    
1366
@item -chardev socket ,id=@var{id} [@var{TCP options} or @var{unix options}] [,server] [,nowait] [,telnet]
1367

    
1368
Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A
1369
unix socket will be created if @option{path} is specified. Behaviour is
1370
undefined if TCP options are specified for a unix socket.
1371

    
1372
@option{server} specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.
1373

    
1374
@option{nowait} specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to
1375
connect to a listening socket.
1376

    
1377
@option{telnet} specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet
1378
escape sequences.
1379

    
1380
TCP and unix socket options are given below:
1381

    
1382
@table @option
1383

    
1384
@item TCP options: port=@var{port} [,host=@var{host}] [,to=@var{to}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6] [,nodelay]
1385

    
1386
@option{host} for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.
1387
For a connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. @option{host} is
1388
optional for listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1389

    
1390
@option{port} for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a
1391
connecting socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.
1392
@option{port} can be given as either a port number or a service name.
1393
@option{port} is required.
1394

    
1395
@option{to} is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and
1396
@option{port} cannot be bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up
1397
to and including @option{to} until it succeeds. @option{to} must be specified
1398
as a port number.
1399

    
1400
@option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
1401
If neither is specified the socket may use either protocol.
1402

    
1403
@option{nodelay} disables the Nagle algorithm.
1404

    
1405
@item unix options: path=@var{path}
1406

    
1407
@option{path} specifies the local path of the unix socket. @option{path} is
1408
required.
1409

    
1410
@end table
1411

    
1412
@item -chardev udp ,id=@var{id} [,host=@var{host}] ,port=@var{port} [,localaddr=@var{localaddr}] [,localport=@var{localport}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6]
1413

    
1414
Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.
1415

    
1416
@option{host} specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it
1417
defaults to @code{localhost}.
1418

    
1419
@option{port} specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. @option{port}
1420
is required.
1421

    
1422
@option{localaddr} specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it
1423
defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1424

    
1425
@option{localport} specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any
1426
available local port will be used.
1427

    
1428
@option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
1429
If neither is specified the device may use either protocol.
1430

    
1431
@item -chardev msmouse ,id=@var{id}
1432

    
1433
Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. @option{msmouse} does not
1434
take any options.
1435

    
1436
@item -chardev vc ,id=@var{id} [[,width=@var{width}] [,height=@var{height}]] [[,cols=@var{cols}] [,rows=@var{rows}]]
1437

    
1438
Connect to a QEMU text console. @option{vc} may optionally be given a specific
1439
size.
1440

    
1441
@option{width} and @option{height} specify the width and height respectively of
1442
the console, in pixels.
1443

    
1444
@option{cols} and @option{rows} specify that the console be sized to fit a text
1445
console with the given dimensions.
1446

    
1447
@item -chardev file ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1448

    
1449
Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.
1450

    
1451
@option{path} specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be
1452
created if it does not already exist, and overwritten if it does. @option{path}
1453
is required.
1454

    
1455
@item -chardev pipe ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1456

    
1457
Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
1458
Windows hosts and other hosts:
1459

    
1460
On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at
1461
@file{\\.pipe\@option{path}}.
1462

    
1463
On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called @file{@option{path}.in} and
1464
@file{@option{path}.out}. Data written to @file{@option{path}.in} will be
1465
received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
1466
@file{@option{path}.out}. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to
1467
be present.
1468

    
1469
@option{path} forms part of the pipe path as described above. @option{path} is
1470
required.
1471

    
1472
@item -chardev console ,id=@var{id}
1473

    
1474
Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. @option{console} does not
1475
take any options.
1476

    
1477
@option{console} is only available on Windows hosts.
1478

    
1479
@item -chardev serial ,id=@var{id} ,path=@option{path}
1480

    
1481
Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.
1482

    
1483
@option{serial} is
1484
only available on Windows hosts.
1485

    
1486
@option{path} specifies the name of the serial device to open.
1487

    
1488
@item -chardev pty ,id=@var{id}
1489

    
1490
Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. @option{pty} does
1491
not take any options.
1492

    
1493
@option{pty} is not available on Windows hosts.
1494

    
1495
@item -chardev stdio ,id=@var{id} [,signal=on|off]
1496
Connect to standard input and standard output of the qemu process.
1497

    
1498
@option{signal} controls if signals are enabled on the terminal, that includes
1499
exiting QEMU with the key sequence @key{Control-c}. This option is enabled by
1500
default, use @option{signal=off} to disable it.
1501

    
1502
@option{stdio} is not available on Windows hosts.
1503

    
1504
@item -chardev braille ,id=@var{id}
1505

    
1506
Connect to a local BrlAPI server. @option{braille} does not take any options.
1507

    
1508
@item -chardev tty ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1509

    
1510
Connect to a local tty device.
1511

    
1512
@option{tty} is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and
1513
DragonFlyBSD hosts.
1514

    
1515
@option{path} specifies the path to the tty. @option{path} is required.
1516

    
1517
@item -chardev parport ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1518

    
1519
@option{parport} is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.
1520

    
1521
Connect to a local parallel port.
1522

    
1523
@option{path} specifies the path to the parallel port device. @option{path} is
1524
required.
1525

    
1526
@end table
1527
ETEXI
1528

    
1529
DEFHEADING()
1530

    
1531
DEFHEADING(Bluetooth(R) options:)
1532

    
1533
DEF("bt", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bt, \
1534
    "-bt hci,null    dumb bluetooth HCI - doesn't respond to commands\n" \
1535
    "-bt hci,host[:id]\n" \
1536
    "                use host's HCI with the given name\n" \
1537
    "-bt hci[,vlan=n]\n" \
1538
    "                emulate a standard HCI in virtual scatternet 'n'\n" \
1539
    "-bt vhci[,vlan=n]\n" \
1540
    "                add host computer to virtual scatternet 'n' using VHCI\n" \
1541
    "-bt device:dev[,vlan=n]\n" \
1542
    "                emulate a bluetooth device 'dev' in scatternet 'n'\n",
1543
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1544
STEXI
1545
@table @option
1546

    
1547
@item -bt hci[...]
1548
@findex -bt
1549
Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI.  -bt options
1550
are matched with the HCIs present in the chosen machine type.  For
1551
example when emulating a machine with only one HCI built into it, only
1552
the first @code{-bt hci[...]} option is valid and defines the HCI's
1553
logic.  The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type.  Currently
1554
the machines @code{n800} and @code{n810} have one HCI and all other
1555
machines have none.
1556

    
1557
@anchor{bt-hcis}
1558
The following three types are recognized:
1559

    
1560
@table @option
1561
@item -bt hci,null
1562
(default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic
1563
and will not respond to any HCI commands or emit events.
1564

    
1565
@item -bt hci,host[:@var{id}]
1566
(@code{bluez} only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events
1567
to / from the physical HCI identified by the name @var{id} (default:
1568
@code{hci0}) on the computer running QEMU.  Only available on @code{bluez}
1569
capable systems like Linux.
1570

    
1571
@item -bt hci[,vlan=@var{n}]
1572
Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth
1573
scatternet @var{n} (default @code{0}).  Similarly to @option{-net}
1574
VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network @var{n} can only communicate
1575
with other devices in the same network (scatternet).
1576
@end table
1577

    
1578
@item -bt vhci[,vlan=@var{n}]
1579
(Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet @var{n} (default 0) attached
1580
to the host bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target.  This
1581
allows the host and target machines to participate in a common scatternet
1582
and communicate.  Requires the Linux @code{vhci} driver installed.  Can
1583
be used as following:
1584

    
1585
@example
1586
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5
1587
@end example
1588

    
1589
@item -bt device:@var{dev}[,vlan=@var{n}]
1590
Emulate a bluetooth device @var{dev} and place it in network @var{n}
1591
(default @code{0}).  QEMU can only emulate one type of bluetooth devices
1592
currently:
1593

    
1594
@table @option
1595
@item keyboard
1596
Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.
1597
@end table
1598
@end table
1599
ETEXI
1600

    
1601
DEFHEADING()
1602

    
1603
DEFHEADING(Linux/Multiboot boot specific:)
1604
STEXI
1605

    
1606
When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot
1607
kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
1608
for easier testing of various kernels.
1609

    
1610
@table @option
1611
ETEXI
1612

    
1613
DEF("kernel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_kernel, \
1614
    "-kernel bzImage use 'bzImage' as kernel image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1615
STEXI
1616
@item -kernel @var{bzImage}
1617
@findex -kernel
1618
Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel
1619
or in multiboot format.
1620
ETEXI
1621

    
1622
DEF("append", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_append, \
1623
    "-append cmdline use 'cmdline' as kernel command line\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1624
STEXI
1625
@item -append @var{cmdline}
1626
@findex -append
1627
Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
1628
ETEXI
1629

    
1630
DEF("initrd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_initrd, \
1631
           "-initrd file    use 'file' as initial ram disk\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1632
STEXI
1633
@item -initrd @var{file}
1634
@findex -initrd
1635
Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
1636

    
1637
@item -initrd "@var{file1} arg=foo,@var{file2}"
1638

    
1639
This syntax is only available with multiboot.
1640

    
1641
Use @var{file1} and @var{file2} as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the
1642
first module.
1643
ETEXI
1644

    
1645
STEXI
1646
@end table
1647
ETEXI
1648

    
1649
DEFHEADING()
1650

    
1651
DEFHEADING(Debug/Expert options:)
1652

    
1653
STEXI
1654
@table @option
1655
ETEXI
1656

    
1657
DEF("serial", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_serial, \
1658
    "-serial dev     redirect the serial port to char device 'dev'\n",
1659
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1660
STEXI
1661
@item -serial @var{dev}
1662
@findex -serial
1663
Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
1664
@var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
1665
@code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
1666

    
1667
This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial
1668
ports.
1669

    
1670
Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
1671

    
1672
Available character devices are:
1673
@table @option
1674
@item vc[:@var{W}x@var{H}]
1675
Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with
1676
@example
1677
vc:800x600
1678
@end example
1679
It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:
1680
@example
1681
vc:80Cx24C
1682
@end example
1683
@item pty
1684
[Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
1685
@item none
1686
No device is allocated.
1687
@item null
1688
void device
1689
@item /dev/XXX
1690
[Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
1691
parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
1692
@item /dev/parport@var{N}
1693
[Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
1694
@var{N}. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.
1695
@item file:@var{filename}
1696
Write output to @var{filename}. No character can be read.
1697
@item stdio
1698
[Unix only] standard input/output
1699
@item pipe:@var{filename}
1700
name pipe @var{filename}
1701
@item COM@var{n}
1702
[Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
1703
@item udp:[@var{remote_host}]:@var{remote_port}[@@[@var{src_ip}]:@var{src_port}]
1704
This implements UDP Net Console.
1705
When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified
1706
they default to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1707
When not using a specified @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
1708

    
1709
If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
1710
@code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
1711
@code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
1712
will appear in the netconsole session.
1713

    
1714
If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
1715
and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
1716
source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
1717
udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
1718
version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
1719
characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which
1720
activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
1721
use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
1722
telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
1723
@table @code
1724
@item Qemu Options:
1725
-serial udp::4555@@:4556
1726
@item netcat options:
1727
-u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T
1728
@item telnet options:
1729
localhost 5555
1730
@end table
1731

    
1732
@item tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,@var{server}][,nowait][,nodelay]
1733
The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.  It can send the serial
1734
I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default
1735
the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}.  If you use
1736
the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
1737
to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
1738
option was specified.  The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
1739
algorithm.  If @var{host} is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only
1740
one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
1741
connect to the corresponding character device.
1742
@table @code
1743
@item Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444
1744
-serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444
1745
@item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
1746
-serial tcp::4444,server
1747
@item Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444
1748
-serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait
1749
@end table
1750

    
1751
@item telnet:@var{host}:@var{port}[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
1752
The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.  The options
1753
work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}.  The
1754
difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
1755
telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow you to send the
1756
MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
1757
sequence.  Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
1758
type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
1759

    
1760
@item unix:@var{path}[,server][,nowait]
1761
A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the
1762
same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
1763
@var{path} is used for connections.
1764

    
1765
@item mon:@var{dev_string}
1766
This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto
1767
another serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of
1768
@key{Control-a} and then pressing @key{c}. See monitor access
1769
@ref{pcsys_keys} in the -nographic section for more keys.
1770
@var{dev_string} should be any one of the serial devices specified
1771
above.  An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server
1772
listening on port 4444 would be:
1773
@table @code
1774
@item -serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
1775
@end table
1776

    
1777
@item braille
1778
Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
1779
or fake device.
1780

    
1781
@item msmouse
1782
Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.
1783
@end table
1784
ETEXI
1785

    
1786
DEF("parallel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_parallel, \
1787
    "-parallel dev   redirect the parallel port to char device 'dev'\n",
1788
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1789
STEXI
1790
@item -parallel @var{dev}
1791
@findex -parallel
1792
Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
1793
devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
1794
be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
1795
parallel port.
1796

    
1797
This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
1798
ports.
1799

    
1800
Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
1801
ETEXI
1802

    
1803
DEF("monitor", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_monitor, \
1804
    "-monitor dev    redirect the monitor to char device 'dev'\n",
1805
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1806
STEXI
1807
@item -monitor @var{dev}
1808
@findex -monitor
1809
Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
1810
serial port).
1811
The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
1812
non graphical mode.
1813
ETEXI
1814
DEF("qmp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qmp, \
1815
    "-qmp dev        like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode\n",
1816
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1817
STEXI
1818
@item -qmp @var{dev}
1819
@findex -qmp
1820
Like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode.
1821
ETEXI
1822

    
1823
DEF("mon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mon, \
1824
    "-mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1825
STEXI
1826
@item -mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]
1827
@findex -mon
1828
Setup monitor on chardev @var{name}.
1829
ETEXI
1830

    
1831
DEF("debugcon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_debugcon, \
1832
    "-debugcon dev   redirect the debug console to char device 'dev'\n",
1833
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1834
STEXI
1835
@item -debugcon @var{dev}
1836
@findex -debugcon
1837
Redirect the debug console to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
1838
serial port).  The debug console is an I/O port which is typically port
1839
0xe9; writing to that I/O port sends output to this device.
1840
The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
1841
non graphical mode.
1842
ETEXI
1843

    
1844
DEF("pidfile", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pidfile, \
1845
    "-pidfile file   write PID to 'file'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1846
STEXI
1847
@item -pidfile @var{file}
1848
@findex -pidfile
1849
Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
1850
from a script.
1851
ETEXI
1852

    
1853
DEF("singlestep", 0, QEMU_OPTION_singlestep, \
1854
    "-singlestep     always run in singlestep mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1855
STEXI
1856
@item -singlestep
1857
@findex -singlestep
1858
Run the emulation in single step mode.
1859
ETEXI
1860

    
1861
DEF("S", 0, QEMU_OPTION_S, \
1862
    "-S              freeze CPU at startup (use 'c' to start execution)\n",
1863
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1864
STEXI
1865
@item -S
1866
@findex -S
1867
Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
1868
ETEXI
1869

    
1870
DEF("gdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_gdb, \
1871
    "-gdb dev        wait for gdb connection on 'dev'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1872
STEXI
1873
@item -gdb @var{dev}
1874
@findex -gdb
1875
Wait for gdb connection on device @var{dev} (@pxref{gdb_usage}). Typical
1876
connections will likely be TCP-based, but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even
1877
stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is allowing to start qemu from
1878
within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:
1879
@example
1880
(gdb) target remote | exec qemu -gdb stdio ...
1881
@end example
1882
ETEXI
1883

    
1884
DEF("s", 0, QEMU_OPTION_s, \
1885
    "-s              shorthand for -gdb tcp::" DEFAULT_GDBSTUB_PORT "\n",
1886
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1887
STEXI
1888
@item -s
1889
@findex -s
1890
Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234
1891
(@pxref{gdb_usage}).
1892
ETEXI
1893

    
1894
DEF("d", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_d, \
1895
    "-d item1,...    output log to /tmp/qemu.log (use -d ? for a list of log items)\n",
1896
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1897
STEXI
1898
@item -d
1899
@findex -d
1900
Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
1901
ETEXI
1902

    
1903
DEF("hdachs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdachs, \
1904
    "-hdachs c,h,s[,t]\n" \
1905
    "                force hard disk 0 physical geometry and the optional BIOS\n" \
1906
    "                translation (t=none or lba) (usually qemu can guess them)\n",
1907
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1908
STEXI
1909
@item -hdachs @var{c},@var{h},@var{s},[,@var{t}]
1910
@findex -hdachs
1911
Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
1912
@var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
1913
translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
1914
all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
1915
images.
1916
ETEXI
1917

    
1918
DEF("L", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_L, \
1919
    "-L path         set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps\n",
1920
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1921
STEXI
1922
@item -L  @var{path}
1923
@findex -L
1924
Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
1925
ETEXI
1926

    
1927
DEF("bios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bios, \
1928
    "-bios file      set the filename for the BIOS\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1929
STEXI
1930
@item -bios @var{file}
1931
@findex -bios
1932
Set the filename for the BIOS.
1933
ETEXI
1934

    
1935
DEF("enable-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_kvm, \
1936
    "-enable-kvm     enable KVM full virtualization support\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1937
STEXI
1938
@item -enable-kvm
1939
@findex -enable-kvm
1940
Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available
1941
if KVM support is enabled when compiling.
1942
ETEXI
1943

    
1944
DEF("xen-domid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_xen_domid,
1945
    "-xen-domid id   specify xen guest domain id\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1946
DEF("xen-create", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_create,
1947
    "-xen-create     create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend\n"
1948
    "                warning: should not be used when xend is in use\n",
1949
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1950
DEF("xen-attach", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_attach,
1951
    "-xen-attach     attach to existing xen domain\n"
1952
    "                xend will use this when starting qemu\n",
1953
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1954
STEXI
1955
@item -xen-domid @var{id}
1956
@findex -xen-domid
1957
Specify xen guest domain @var{id} (XEN only).
1958
@item -xen-create
1959
@findex -xen-create
1960
Create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend.
1961
Warning: should not be used when xend is in use (XEN only).
1962
@item -xen-attach
1963
@findex -xen-attach
1964
Attach to existing xen domain.
1965
xend will use this when starting qemu (XEN only).
1966
ETEXI
1967

    
1968
DEF("no-reboot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_reboot, \
1969
    "-no-reboot      exit instead of rebooting\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1970
STEXI
1971
@item -no-reboot
1972
@findex -no-reboot
1973
Exit instead of rebooting.
1974
ETEXI
1975

    
1976
DEF("no-shutdown", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_shutdown, \
1977
    "-no-shutdown    stop before shutdown\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1978
STEXI
1979
@item -no-shutdown
1980
@findex -no-shutdown
1981
Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.
1982
This allows for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the
1983
disk image.
1984
ETEXI
1985

    
1986
DEF("loadvm", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_loadvm, \
1987
    "-loadvm [tag|id]\n" \
1988
    "                start right away with a saved state (loadvm in monitor)\n",
1989
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1990
STEXI
1991
@item -loadvm @var{file}
1992
@findex -loadvm
1993
Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
1994
ETEXI
1995

    
1996
#ifndef _WIN32
1997
DEF("daemonize", 0, QEMU_OPTION_daemonize, \
1998
    "-daemonize      daemonize QEMU after initializing\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1999
#endif
2000
STEXI
2001
@item -daemonize
2002
@findex -daemonize
2003
Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from
2004
standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
2005
This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
2006
to cope with initialization race conditions.
2007
ETEXI
2008

    
2009
DEF("option-rom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_option_rom, \
2010
    "-option-rom rom load a file, rom, into the option ROM space\n",
2011
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2012
STEXI
2013
@item -option-rom @var{file}
2014
@findex -option-rom
2015
Load the contents of @var{file} as an option ROM.
2016
This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.
2017
ETEXI
2018

    
2019
DEF("clock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_clock, \
2020
    "-clock          force the use of the given methods for timer alarm.\n" \
2021
    "                To see what timers are available use -clock ?\n",
2022
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2023
STEXI
2024
@item -clock @var{method}
2025
@findex -clock
2026
Force the use of the given methods for timer alarm. To see what timers
2027
are available use -clock ?.
2028
ETEXI
2029

    
2030
HXCOMM Options deprecated by -rtc
2031
DEF("localtime", 0, QEMU_OPTION_localtime, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2032
DEF("startdate", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_startdate, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2033

    
2034
DEF("rtc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rtc, \
2035
    "-rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]\n" \
2036
    "                set the RTC base and clock, enable drift fix for clock ticks (x86 only)\n",
2037
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2038

    
2039
STEXI
2040

    
2041
@item -rtc [base=utc|localtime|@var{date}][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
2042
@findex -rtc
2043
Specify @option{base} as @code{utc} or @code{localtime} to let the RTC start at the current
2044
UTC or local time, respectively. @code{localtime} is required for correct date in
2045
MS-DOS or Windows. To start at a specific point in time, provide @var{date} in the
2046
format @code{2006-06-17T16:01:21} or @code{2006-06-17}. The default base is UTC.
2047

    
2048
By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows to use the
2049
RTC as accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host
2050
time is smoothly following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.
2051
If you want to isolate the guest time from the host, even prevent it from
2052
progressing during suspension, you can set @option{clock} to @code{vm} instead.
2053

    
2054
Enable @option{driftfix} (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
2055
specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how
2056
many timer interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will
2057
re-inject them.
2058
ETEXI
2059

    
2060
DEF("icount", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_icount, \
2061
    "-icount [N|auto]\n" \
2062
    "                enable virtual instruction counter with 2^N clock ticks per\n" \
2063
    "                instruction\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2064
STEXI
2065
@item -icount [@var{N}|auto]
2066
@findex -icount
2067
Enable virtual instruction counter.  The virtual cpu will execute one
2068
instruction every 2^@var{N} ns of virtual time.  If @code{auto} is specified
2069
then the virtual cpu speed will be automatically adjusted to keep virtual
2070
time within a few seconds of real time.
2071

    
2072
Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not
2073
provide cycle accurate emulation.  Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of
2074
order cores with complex cache hierarchies.  The number of instructions
2075
executed often has little or no correlation with actual performance.
2076
ETEXI
2077

    
2078
DEF("watchdog", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog, \
2079
    "-watchdog i6300esb|ib700\n" \
2080
    "                enable virtual hardware watchdog [default=none]\n",
2081
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2082
STEXI
2083
@item -watchdog @var{model}
2084
@findex -watchdog
2085
Create a virtual hardware watchdog device.  Once enabled (by a guest
2086
action), the watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside
2087
the guest or else the guest will be restarted.
2088

    
2089
The @var{model} is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate.  Choices
2090
for model are: @code{ib700} (iBASE 700) which is a very simple ISA
2091
watchdog with a single timer, or @code{i6300esb} (Intel 6300ESB I/O
2092
controller hub) which is a much more featureful PCI-based dual-timer
2093
watchdog.  Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.
2094

    
2095
Use @code{-watchdog ?} to list available hardware models.  Only one
2096
watchdog can be enabled for a guest.
2097
ETEXI
2098

    
2099
DEF("watchdog-action", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog_action, \
2100
    "-watchdog-action reset|shutdown|poweroff|pause|debug|none\n" \
2101
    "                action when watchdog fires [default=reset]\n",
2102
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2103
STEXI
2104
@item -watchdog-action @var{action}
2105

    
2106
The @var{action} controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer
2107
expires.
2108
The default is
2109
@code{reset} (forcefully reset the guest).
2110
Other possible actions are:
2111
@code{shutdown} (attempt to gracefully shutdown the guest),
2112
@code{poweroff} (forcefully poweroff the guest),
2113
@code{pause} (pause the guest),
2114
@code{debug} (print a debug message and continue), or
2115
@code{none} (do nothing).
2116

    
2117
Note that the @code{shutdown} action requires that the guest responds
2118
to ACPI signals, which it may not be able to do in the sort of
2119
situations where the watchdog would have expired, and thus
2120
@code{-watchdog-action shutdown} is not recommended for production use.
2121

    
2122
Examples:
2123

    
2124
@table @code
2125
@item -watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause
2126
@item -watchdog ib700
2127
@end table
2128
ETEXI
2129

    
2130
DEF("echr", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_echr, \
2131
    "-echr chr       set terminal escape character instead of ctrl-a\n",
2132
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2133
STEXI
2134

    
2135
@item -echr @var{numeric_ascii_value}
2136
@findex -echr
2137
Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using
2138
monitor and serial sharing.  The default is @code{0x01} when using the
2139
@code{-nographic} option.  @code{0x01} is equal to pressing
2140
@code{Control-a}.  You can select a different character from the ascii
2141
control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.  For
2142
instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape
2143
character to Control-t.
2144
@table @code
2145
@item -echr 0x14
2146
@item -echr 20
2147
@end table
2148
ETEXI
2149

    
2150
DEF("virtioconsole", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtiocon, \
2151
    "-virtioconsole c\n" \
2152
    "                set virtio console\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2153
STEXI
2154
@item -virtioconsole @var{c}
2155
@findex -virtioconsole
2156
Set virtio console.
2157

    
2158
This option is maintained for backward compatibility.
2159

    
2160
Please use @code{-device virtconsole} for the new way of invocation.
2161
ETEXI
2162

    
2163
DEF("show-cursor", 0, QEMU_OPTION_show_cursor, \
2164
    "-show-cursor    show cursor\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2165
STEXI
2166
@item -show-cursor
2167
@findex -show-cursor
2168
Show cursor.
2169
ETEXI
2170

    
2171
DEF("tb-size", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tb_size, \
2172
    "-tb-size n      set TB size\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2173
STEXI
2174
@item -tb-size @var{n}
2175
@findex -tb-size
2176
Set TB size.
2177
ETEXI
2178

    
2179
DEF("incoming", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_incoming, \
2180
    "-incoming p     prepare for incoming migration, listen on port p\n",
2181
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2182
STEXI
2183
@item -incoming @var{port}
2184
@findex -incoming
2185
Prepare for incoming migration, listen on @var{port}.
2186
ETEXI
2187

    
2188
DEF("nodefaults", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefaults, \
2189
    "-nodefaults     don't create default devices\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2190
STEXI
2191
@item -nodefaults
2192
@findex -nodefaults
2193
Don't create default devices.
2194
ETEXI
2195

    
2196
#ifndef _WIN32
2197
DEF("chroot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chroot, \
2198
    "-chroot dir     chroot to dir just before starting the VM\n",
2199
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2200
#endif
2201
STEXI
2202
@item -chroot @var{dir}
2203
@findex -chroot
2204
Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified
2205
directory.  Especially useful in combination with -runas.
2206
ETEXI
2207

    
2208
#ifndef _WIN32
2209
DEF("runas", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_runas, \
2210
    "-runas user     change to user id user just before starting the VM\n",
2211
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2212
#endif
2213
STEXI
2214
@item -runas @var{user}
2215
@findex -runas
2216
Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching
2217
to the specified user.
2218
ETEXI
2219

    
2220
DEF("prom-env", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_prom_env,
2221
    "-prom-env variable=value\n"
2222
    "                set OpenBIOS nvram variables\n",
2223
    QEMU_ARCH_PPC | QEMU_ARCH_SPARC)
2224
STEXI
2225
@item -prom-env @var{variable}=@var{value}
2226
@findex -prom-env
2227
Set OpenBIOS nvram @var{variable} to given @var{value} (PPC, SPARC only).
2228
ETEXI
2229
DEF("semihosting", 0, QEMU_OPTION_semihosting,
2230
    "-semihosting    semihosting mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ARM | QEMU_ARCH_M68K)
2231
STEXI
2232
@item -semihosting
2233
@findex -semihosting
2234
Semihosting mode (ARM, M68K only).
2235
ETEXI
2236
DEF("old-param", 0, QEMU_OPTION_old_param,
2237
    "-old-param      old param mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ARM)
2238
STEXI
2239
@item -old-param
2240
@findex -old-param (ARM)
2241
Old param mode (ARM only).
2242
ETEXI
2243

    
2244
DEF("readconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_readconfig,
2245
    "-readconfig <file>\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2246
STEXI
2247
@item -readconfig @var{file}
2248
@findex -readconfig
2249
Read device configuration from @var{file}.
2250
ETEXI
2251
DEF("writeconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_writeconfig,
2252
    "-writeconfig <file>\n"
2253
    "                read/write config file\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2254
STEXI
2255
@item -writeconfig @var{file}
2256
@findex -writeconfig
2257
Write device configuration to @var{file}.
2258
ETEXI
2259
DEF("nodefconfig", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefconfig,
2260
    "-nodefconfig\n"
2261
    "                do not load default config files at startup\n",
2262
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2263
STEXI
2264
@item -nodefconfig
2265
@findex -nodefconfig
2266
Normally QEMU loads a configuration file from @var{sysconfdir}/qemu.conf and
2267
@var{sysconfdir}/target-@var{ARCH}.conf on startup.  The @code{-nodefconfig}
2268
option will prevent QEMU from loading these configuration files at startup.
2269
ETEXI
2270
#ifdef CONFIG_SIMPLE_TRACE
2271
DEF("trace", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_trace,
2272
    "-trace\n"
2273
    "                Specify a trace file to log traces to\n",
2274
    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2275
STEXI
2276
@item -trace
2277
@findex -trace
2278
Specify a trace file to log output traces to.
2279
ETEXI
2280
#endif
2281

    
2282
HXCOMM This is the last statement. Insert new options before this line!
2283
STEXI
2284
@end table
2285
ETEXI