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Ganeti installation tutorial
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============================
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Documents Ganeti version |version|
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.. contents::
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.. highlight:: text
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Introduction
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------------
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Ganeti is a cluster virtualization management system based on Xen or
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KVM. This document explains how to bootstrap a Ganeti node (Xen *dom0*,
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the host Linux system for KVM), create a running cluster and install
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virtual instances (Xen *domUs*, KVM guests).  You need to repeat most of
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the steps in this document for every node you want to install, but of
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course we recommend creating some semi-automatic procedure if you plan
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to deploy Ganeti on a medium/large scale.
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A basic Ganeti terminology glossary is provided in the introductory
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section of the :doc:`admin`. Please refer to that document if you are
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uncertain about the terms we are using.
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Ganeti has been developed for Linux and should be distribution-agnostic.
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This documentation will use Debian Lenny as an example system but the
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examples can be translated to any other distribution. You are expected
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to be familiar with your distribution, its package management system,
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and Xen or KVM before trying to use Ganeti.
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This document is divided into two main sections:
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- Installation of the base system and base components
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- Configuration of the environment for Ganeti
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Each of these is divided into sub-sections. While a full Ganeti system
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will need all of the steps specified, some are not strictly required for
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every environment. Which ones they are, and why, is specified in the
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corresponding sections.
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Installing the base system and base components
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----------------------------------------------
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Hardware requirements
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+++++++++++++++++++++
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Any system supported by your Linux distribution is fine. 64-bit systems
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are better as they can support more memory.
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Any disk drive recognized by Linux (``IDE``/``SCSI``/``SATA``/etc.) is
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supported in Ganeti. Note that no shared storage (e.g. ``SAN``) is
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needed to get high-availability features (but of course, one can be used
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to store the images). It is highly recommended to use more than one disk
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drive to improve speed. But Ganeti also works with one disk per machine.
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Installing the base system
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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It is advised to start with a clean, minimal install of the operating
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system. The only requirement you need to be aware of at this stage is to
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partition leaving enough space for a big (**minimum** 20GiB) LVM volume
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group which will then host your instance filesystems, if you want to use
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all Ganeti features. The volume group name Ganeti uses (by default) is
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``xenvg``.
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You can also use file-based storage only, without LVM, but this setup is
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not detailed in this document.
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While you can use an existing system, please note that the Ganeti
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installation is intrusive in terms of changes to the system
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configuration, and it's best to use a newly-installed system without
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important data on it.
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Also, for best results, it's advised that the nodes have as much as
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possible the same hardware and software configuration. This will make
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administration much easier.
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Hostname issues
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Note that Ganeti requires the hostnames of the systems (i.e. what the
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``hostname`` command outputs to be a fully-qualified name, not a short
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name. In other words, you should use *node1.example.com* as a hostname
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and not just *node1*.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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   Debian Lenny and Etch configures the hostname differently than you
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   need it for Ganeti. For example, this is what Etch puts in
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   ``/etc/hosts`` in certain situations::
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     127.0.0.1       localhost
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     127.0.1.1       node1.example.com node1
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   but for Ganeti you need to have::
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     127.0.0.1       localhost
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     192.0.2.1     node1.example.com node1
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   replacing ``192.0.2.1`` with your node's address. Also, the file
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   ``/etc/hostname`` which configures the hostname of the system
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   should contain ``node1.example.com`` and not just ``node1`` (you
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   need to run the command ``/etc/init.d/hostname.sh start`` after
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   changing the file).
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.. admonition:: Why a fully qualified host name
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   Although most distributions use only the short name in the
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   /etc/hostname file, we still think Ganeti nodes should use the full
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   name. The reason for this is that calling 'hostname --fqdn' requires
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   the resolver library to work and is a 'guess' via heuristics at what
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   is your domain name. Since Ganeti can be used among other things to
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   host DNS servers, we don't want to depend on them as much as
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   possible, and we'd rather have the uname() syscall return the full
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   node name.
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   We haven't ever found any breakage in using a full hostname on a
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   Linux system, and anyway we recommend to have only a minimal
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   installation on Ganeti nodes, and to use instances (or other
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   dedicated machines) to run the rest of your network services. By
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   doing this you can change the /etc/hostname file to contain an FQDN
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   without the fear of breaking anything unrelated.
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Installing The Hypervisor
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+++++++++++++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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While Ganeti is developed with the ability to modularly run on different
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virtualization environments in mind the only two currently useable on a
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live system are Xen and KVM. Supported Xen versions are: 3.0.3, 3.0.4
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and 3.1.  Supported KVM version are 72 and above.
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Please follow your distribution's recommended way to install and set up
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Xen, or install Xen from the upstream source, if you wish, following
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their manual. For KVM, make sure you have a KVM-enabled kernel and the
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KVM tools.
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After installing Xen, you need to reboot into your new system. On some
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distributions this might involve configuring GRUB appropriately, whereas
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others will configure it automatically when you install the respective
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kernels. For KVM no reboot should be necessary.
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.. admonition:: Xen on Debian
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   Under Lenny or Etch you can install the relevant ``xen-linux-system``
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   package, which will pull in both the hypervisor and the relevant
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   kernel. Also, if you are installing a 32-bit Lenny/Etch, you should
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   install the ``libc6-xen`` package (run ``apt-get install
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   libc6-xen``).
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Xen settings
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~~~~~~~~~~~~
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It's recommended that dom0 is restricted to a low amount of memory
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(512MiB or 1GiB is reasonable) and that memory ballooning is disabled in
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the file ``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp`` by setting the value
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``dom0-min-mem`` to 0, like this::
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  (dom0-min-mem 0)
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For optimum performance when running both CPU and I/O intensive
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instances, it's also recommended that the dom0 is restricted to one CPU
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only, for example by booting with the kernel parameter ``nosmp``.
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It is recommended that you disable xen's automatic save of virtual
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machines at system shutdown and subsequent restore of them at reboot.
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To obtain this make sure the variable ``XENDOMAINS_SAVE`` in the file
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``/etc/default/xendomains`` is set to an empty value.
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If you want to use live migration make sure you have, in the xen config
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file, something that allows the nodes to migrate instances between each
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other. For example::
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  (xend-relocation-server yes)
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  (xend-relocation-port 8002)
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  (xend-relocation-address '')
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  (xend-relocation-hosts-allow '^192\\.0\\.2\\.[0-9]+$')
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The second line assumess that the hypervisor parameter
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``migration_port`` is set 8002, otherwise modify it to match. The last
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line assumes that all your nodes have secondary IPs in the
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192.0.2.0/24 network, adjust it accordingly to your setup.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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   Besides the ballooning change which you need to set in
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   ``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``, you need to set the memory and nosmp
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   parameters in the file ``/boot/grub/menu.lst``. You need to modify
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   the variable ``xenhopt`` to add ``dom0_mem=1024M`` like this::
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     ## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
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     # xenhopt=dom0_mem=1024M
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   and the ``xenkopt`` needs to include the ``nosmp`` option like this::
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     ## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
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     # xenkopt=nosmp
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   Any existing parameters can be left in place: it's ok to have
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   ``xenkopt=console=tty0 nosmp``, for example. After modifying the
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   files, you need to run::
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     /sbin/update-grub
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If you want to run HVM instances too with Ganeti and want VNC access to
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the console of your instances, set the following two entries in
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``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``::
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  (vnc-listen '0.0.0.0') (vncpasswd '')
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You need to restart the Xen daemon for these settings to take effect::
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  /etc/init.d/xend restart
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Selecting the instance kernel
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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After you have installed Xen, you need to tell Ganeti exactly what
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kernel to use for the instances it will create. This is done by creating
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a symlink from your actual kernel to ``/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU``, and one
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from your initrd to ``/boot/initrd-2.6-xenU`` [#defkernel]_. Note that
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if you don't use an initrd for the domU kernel, you don't need to create
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the initrd symlink.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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   After installation of the ``xen-linux-system`` package, you need to
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   run (replace the exact version number with the one you have)::
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     cd /boot
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     ln -s vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-xen-amd64 vmlinuz-2.6-xenU
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     ln -s initrd.img-2.6.26-1-xen-amd64 initrd-2.6-xenU
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Installing DRBD
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+++++++++++++++
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Recommended on all nodes: DRBD_ is required if you want to use the high
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availability (HA) features of Ganeti, but optional if you don't require
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them or only run Ganeti on single-node clusters. You can upgrade a
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non-HA cluster to an HA one later, but you might need to export and
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re-import all your instances to take advantage of the new features.
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.. _DRBD: http://www.drbd.org/
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Supported DRBD versions: 8.0+. It's recommended to have at least version
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8.0.12. Note that for version 8.2 and newer it is needed to pass the
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``usermode_helper=/bin/true`` parameter to the module, either by
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configuring ``/etc/modules`` or when inserting it manually.
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Now the bad news: unless your distribution already provides it
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installing DRBD might involve recompiling your kernel or anyway fiddling
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with it. Hopefully at least the Xen-ified kernel source to start from
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will be provided (if you intend to use Xen).
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The good news is that you don't need to configure DRBD at all. Ganeti
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will do it for you for every instance you set up.  If you have the DRBD
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utils installed and the module in your kernel you're fine. Please check
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that your system is configured to load the module at every boot, and
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that it passes the following option to the module:
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``minor_count=NUMBER``. We recommend that you use 128 as the value of
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the minor_count - this will allow you to use up to 64 instances in total
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per node (both primary and secondary, when using only one disk per
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instance). You can increase the number up to 255 if you need more
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instances on a node.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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   On Debian, you can just install (build) the DRBD module with the
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   following commands, making sure you are running the target (Xen or
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   KVM) kernel::
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     apt-get install drbd8-source drbd8-utils
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     m-a update
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     m-a a-i drbd8
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     echo drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true >> /etc/modules
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     depmod -a
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     modprobe drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true
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   It is also recommended that you comment out the default resources in
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   the ``/etc/drbd.conf`` file, so that the init script doesn't try to
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   configure any drbd devices. You can do this by prefixing all
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   *resource* lines in the file with the keyword *skip*, like this::
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     skip {
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       resource r0 {
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         ...
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       }
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     }
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     skip {
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       resource "r1" {
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         ...
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       }
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     }
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Other required software
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+++++++++++++++++++++++
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See :doc:`install-quick`.
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Setting up the environment for Ganeti
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-------------------------------------
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Configuring the network
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+++++++++++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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You can run Ganeti either in "bridge mode" or in "routed mode". In
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bridge mode, the default, the instances network interfaces will be
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attached to a software bridge running in dom0. Xen by default creates
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such a bridge at startup, but your distribution might have a different
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way to do things, and you'll definitely need to manually set it up under
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KVM.
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Beware that the default name Ganeti uses is ``xen-br0`` (which was used
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in Xen 2.0) while Xen 3.0 uses ``xenbr0`` by default. See the
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`Initializing the cluster`_ section to learn how to choose a different
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bridge, or not to use one at all and use "routed mode".
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In order to use "routed mode" under Xen, you'll need to change the
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relevant parameters in the Xen config file. Under KVM instead, no config
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change is necessary, but you still need to set up your network
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interfaces correctly.
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By default, under KVM, the "link" parameter you specify per-nic will
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represent, if non-empty, a different routing table name or number to use
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for your instances. This allows insulation between different instance
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groups, and different routing policies between node traffic and instance
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traffic.
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You will need to configure your routing table basic routes and rules
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outside of ganeti. The vif scripts will only add /32 routes to your
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instances, through their interface, in the table you specified (under
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KVM, and in the main table under Xen).
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.. admonition:: Bridging under Debian
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   The recommended way to configure the Xen bridge is to edit your
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   ``/etc/network/interfaces`` file and substitute your normal
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   Ethernet stanza with the following snippet::
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     auto xen-br0
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     iface xen-br0 inet static
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        address YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
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        netmask YOUR_NETMASK
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        network YOUR_NETWORK
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        broadcast YOUR_BROADCAST_ADDRESS
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        gateway YOUR_GATEWAY
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        bridge_ports eth0
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        bridge_stp off
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        bridge_fd 0
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The following commands need to be executed on the local console:
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  ifdown eth0
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  ifup xen-br0
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To check if the bridge is setup, use the ``ip`` and ``brctl show``
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commands::
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  # ip a show xen-br0
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  9: xen-br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,10000> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
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      link/ether 00:20:fc:1e:d5:5d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
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      inet 10.1.1.200/24 brd 10.1.1.255 scope global xen-br0
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      inet6 fe80::220:fcff:fe1e:d55d/64 scope link
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         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
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  # brctl show xen-br0
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  bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
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  xen-br0         8000.0020fc1ed55d       no              eth0
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.. _configure-lvm-label:
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Configuring LVM
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+++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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The volume group is required to be at least 20GiB.
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If you haven't configured your LVM volume group at install time you need
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to do it before trying to initialize the Ganeti cluster. This is done by
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formatting the devices/partitions you want to use for it and then adding
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them to the relevant volume group::
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  pvcreate /dev/sda3
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  vgcreate xenvg /dev/sda3
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or::
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  pvcreate /dev/sdb1
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  pvcreate /dev/sdc1
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  vgcreate xenvg /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
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If you want to add a device later you can do so with the *vgextend*
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command::
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  pvcreate /dev/sdd1
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  vgextend xenvg /dev/sdd1
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Optional: it is recommended to configure LVM not to scan the DRBD
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devices for physical volumes. This can be accomplished by editing
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``/etc/lvm/lvm.conf`` and adding the ``/dev/drbd[0-9]+`` regular
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expression to the ``filter`` variable, like this::
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  filter = ["r|/dev/cdrom|", "r|/dev/drbd[0-9]+|" ]
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Note that with Ganeti a helper script is provided - ``lvmstrap`` which
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will erase and configure as LVM any not in-use disk on your system. This
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is dangerous and it's recommended to read its ``--help`` output if you
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want to use it.
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Installing Ganeti
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+++++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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It's now time to install the Ganeti software itself.  Download the
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source from the project page at `<http://code.google.com/p/ganeti/>`_,
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and install it (replace 2.0.0 with the latest version)::
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  tar xvzf ganeti-2.0.0.tar.gz
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  cd ganeti-2.0.0
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  ./configure --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/etc
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  make
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  make install
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  mkdir /srv/ganeti/ /srv/ganeti/os /srv/ganeti/export
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You also need to copy the file ``doc/examples/ganeti.initd`` from the
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source archive to ``/etc/init.d/ganeti`` and register it with your
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distribution's startup scripts, for example in Debian::
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  update-rc.d ganeti defaults 20 80
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In order to automatically restart failed instances, you need to setup a
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cron job run the *ganeti-watcher* command. A sample cron file is
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provided in the source at ``doc/examples/ganeti.cron`` and you can copy
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that (eventually altering the path) to ``/etc/cron.d/ganeti``.
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What gets installed
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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The above ``make install`` invocation, or installing via your
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distribution mechanisms, will install on the system:
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- a set of python libraries under the *ganeti* namespace (depending on
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  the python version this can be located in either
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  ``lib/python-$ver/site-packages`` or various other locations)
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- a set of programs under ``/usr/local/sbin`` or ``/usr/sbin``
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- man pages for the above programs
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- a set of tools under the ``lib/ganeti/tools`` directory
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- an example iallocator script (see the admin guide for details) under
461
  ``lib/ganeti/iallocators``
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- a cron job that is needed for cluster maintenance
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- an init script for automatic startup of Ganeti daemons
464
- provided but not installed automatically by ``make install`` is a bash
465
  completion script that hopefully will ease working with the many
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  cluster commands
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Installing the Operating System support packages
469
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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471
**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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473
To be able to install instances you need to have an Operating System
474
installation script. An example OS that works under Debian and can
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install Debian and Ubuntu instace OSes is provided on the project web
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site.  Download it from the project page and follow the instructions in
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the ``README`` file.  Here is the installation procedure (replace 0.9
478
with the latest version that is compatible with your ganeti version)::
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480
  cd /usr/local/src/
481
  wget http://ganeti.googlecode.com/files/ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9.tar.gz
482
  tar xzf ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9.tar.gz
483
  cd ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9
484
  ./configure
485
  make
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  make install
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In order to use this OS definition, you need to have internet access
489
from your nodes and have the *debootstrap*, *dump* and *restore*
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commands installed on all nodes. Also, if the OS is configured to
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partition the instance's disk in
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``/etc/default/ganeti-instance-debootstrap``, you will need *kpartx*
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installed.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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497
   Use this command on all nodes to install the required packages::
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499
     apt-get install debootstrap dump kpartx
500

    
501
.. admonition:: KVM
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503
   In order for debootstrap instances to be able to shutdown cleanly
504
   they must install have basic acpi support inside the instance. Which
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   packages are needed depend on the exact flavor of debian or ubuntu
506
   which you're installing, but the example defaults file has a
507
   commented out configuration line that works for debian lenny and
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   squeeze::
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510
     EXTRA_PKGS="acpi-support-base,console-tools,udev"
511

    
512
   kbd can be used instead of console-tools, and more packages can be
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   added, of course, if needed.
514

    
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Alternatively, you can create your own OS definitions. See the manpage
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:manpage:`ganeti-os-interface`.
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Initializing the cluster
519
++++++++++++++++++++++++
520

    
521
**Mandatory** once per cluster, on the first node.
522

    
523
The last step is to initialize the cluster. After you have repeated the
524
above process on all of your nodes, choose one as the master, and
525
execute::
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527
  gnt-cluster init <CLUSTERNAME>
528

    
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The *CLUSTERNAME* is a hostname, which must be resolvable (e.g. it must
530
exist in DNS or in ``/etc/hosts``) by all the nodes in the cluster. You
531
must choose a name different from any of the nodes names for a
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multi-node cluster. In general the best choice is to have a unique name
533
for a cluster, even if it consists of only one machine, as you will be
534
able to expand it later without any problems. Please note that the
535
hostname used for this must resolve to an IP address reserved
536
**exclusively** for this purpose, and cannot be the name of the first
537
(master) node.
538

    
539
If you want to use a bridge which is not ``xen-br0``, or no bridge at
540
all, change it with the ``--nic-parameters`` option. For example to
541
bridge on br0 you can say::
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543
  --nic-parameters link=br0
544

    
545
Or to not bridge at all, and use a separate routing table::
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547
  --nic-parameters mode=routed,link=100
548

    
549
If you don't have a xen-br0 interface you also have to specify a
550
different network interface which will get the cluster ip, on the master
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node, by using the ``--master-netdev <device>`` option.
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553
You can use a different name than ``xenvg`` for the volume group (but
554
note that the name must be identical on all nodes). In this case you
555
need to specify it by passing the *-g <VGNAME>* option to ``gnt-cluster
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init``.
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558
To set up the cluster as an Xen HVM cluster, use the
559
``--enabled-hypervisors=xen-hvm`` option to enable the HVM hypervisor
560
(you can also add ``,xen-pvm`` to enable the PVM one too). You will also
561
need to create the VNC cluster password file
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``/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password`` which contains one line with the
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default VNC password for the cluster.
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To setup the cluster for KVM-only usage (KVM and Xen cannot be mixed),
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pass ``--enabled-hypervisors=kvm`` to the init command.
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You can also invoke the command with the ``--help`` option in order to
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see all the possibilities.
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Hypervisor/Network/Cluster parameters
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Please note that the default hypervisor/network/cluster parameters may
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not be the correct one for your environment. Carefully check them, and
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change them at cluster init time, or later with ``gnt-cluster modify``.
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Your instance types, networking environment, hypervisor type and version
579
may all affect what kind of parameters should be used on your cluster.
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For example kvm instances are by default configured to use a host
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kernel, and to be reached via serial console, which works nice for linux
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paravirtualized instances. If you want fully virtualized instances you
584
may want to handle their kernel inside the instance, and to use VNC.
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Joining the nodes to the cluster
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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**Mandatory** for all the other nodes.
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After you have initialized your cluster you need to join the other nodes
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to it. You can do so by executing the following command on the master
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node::
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  gnt-node add <NODENAME>
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Separate replication network
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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**Optional**
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Ganeti uses DRBD to mirror the disk of the virtual instances between
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nodes. To use a dedicated network interface for this (in order to
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improve performance or to enhance security) you need to configure an
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additional interface for each node.  Use the *-s* option with
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``gnt-cluster init`` and ``gnt-node add`` to specify the IP address of
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this secondary interface to use for each node. Note that if you
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specified this option at cluster setup time, you must afterwards use it
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for every node add operation.
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Testing the setup
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+++++++++++++++++
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Execute the ``gnt-node list`` command to see all nodes in the cluster::
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  # gnt-node list
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  Node              DTotal  DFree MTotal MNode MFree Pinst Sinst
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  node1.example.com 197404 197404   2047  1896   125     0     0
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The above shows a couple of things:
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- The various Ganeti daemons can talk to each other
623
- Ganeti can examine the storage of the node (DTotal/DFree)
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- Ganeti can talk to the selected hypervisor (MTotal/MNode/MFree)
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Cluster burnin
627
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
628

    
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With Ganeti a tool called :command:`burnin` is provided that can test
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most of the Ganeti functionality. The tool is installed under the
631
``lib/ganeti/tools`` directory (either under ``/usr`` or ``/usr/local``
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based on the installation method). See more details under
633
:ref:`burnin-label`.
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Further steps
636
-------------
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You can now proceed either to the :doc:`admin`, or read the manpages of
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the various commands (:manpage:`ganeti(7)`, :manpage:`gnt-cluster(8)`,
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:manpage:`gnt-node(8)`, :manpage:`gnt-instance(8)`,
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:manpage:`gnt-job(8)`).
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.. rubric:: Footnotes
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.. [#defkernel] The kernel and initrd paths can be changed at either
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   cluster level (which changes the default for all instances) or at
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   instance level.
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.. vim: set textwidth=72 :
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.. Local Variables:
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.. mode: rst
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.. fill-column: 72
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.. End: