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.. contents::
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.. highlight:: text
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Introduction
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------------
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Ganeti is a cluster virtualization management system based on Xen or
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KVM. This document explains how to bootstrap a Ganeti node (Xen
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*dom0*), create a running cluster and install virtual instance (Xen
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*domU*).  You need to repeat most of the steps in this document for
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every node you want to install, but of course we recommend creating
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some semi-automatic procedure if you plan to deploy Ganeti on a
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medium/large scale.
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KVM. This document explains how to bootstrap a Ganeti node (Xen *dom0*,
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the host Linux system for KVM), create a running cluster and install
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virtual instances (Xen *domUs*, KVM guests).  You need to repeat most of
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the steps in this document for every node you want to install, but of
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course we recommend creating some semi-automatic procedure if you plan
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to deploy Ganeti on a medium/large scale.
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A basic Ganeti terminology glossary is provided in the introductory
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section of the *Ganeti administrator's guide*. Please refer to that
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document if you are uncertain about the terms we are using.
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section of the :doc:`admin`. Please refer to that document if you are
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uncertain about the terms we are using.
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Ganeti has been developed for Linux and is distribution-agnostic.
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Ganeti has been developed for Linux and should be distribution-agnostic.
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This documentation will use Debian Lenny as an example system but the
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examples can easily be translated to any other distribution. ou are
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expected to be familiar with your distribution, its package management
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system, and Xen or KVM before trying to use Ganeti.
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examples can be translated to any other distribution. You are expected
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to be familiar with your distribution, its package management system,
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and Xen or KVM before trying to use Ganeti.
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This document is divided into two main sections:
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......
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- Configuration of the environment for Ganeti
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Each of these is divided into sub-sections. While a full Ganeti system
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will need all of the steps specified, some are not strictly required
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for every environment. Which ones they are, and why, is specified in
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the corresponding sections.
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will need all of the steps specified, some are not strictly required for
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every environment. Which ones they are, and why, is specified in the
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corresponding sections.
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Installing the base system and base components
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----------------------------------------------
......
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Hardware requirements
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+++++++++++++++++++++
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Any system supported by your Linux distribution is fine. 64-bit
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systems are better as they can support more memory.
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Any system supported by your Linux distribution is fine. 64-bit systems
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are better as they can support more memory.
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Any disk drive recognized by Linux (``IDE``/``SCSI``/``SATA``/etc.)
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is supported in Ganeti. Note that no shared storage (e.g.  ``SAN``) is
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needed to get high-availability features (but of course, one can be
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used to store the images). It is highly recommended to use more than
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one disk drive to improve speed. But Ganeti also works with one disk
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per machine.
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Any disk drive recognized by Linux (``IDE``/``SCSI``/``SATA``/etc.) is
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supported in Ganeti. Note that no shared storage (e.g. ``SAN``) is
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needed to get high-availability features (but of course, one can be used
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to store the images). It is highly recommended to use more than one disk
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drive to improve speed. But Ganeti also works with one disk per machine.
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Installing the base system
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++
......
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**Mandatory** on all nodes.
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It is advised to start with a clean, minimal install of the operating
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system. The only requirement you need to be aware of at this stage is
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to partition leaving enough space for a big (**minimum** 20GiB) LVM
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volume group which will then host your instance filesystems, if you
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want to use all Ganeti features. The volume group name Ganeti 2.0 uses
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(by default) is ``xenvg``.
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You can also use file-based storage only, without LVM, but this setup
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is not detailed in this document.
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system. The only requirement you need to be aware of at this stage is to
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partition leaving enough space for a big (**minimum** 20GiB) LVM volume
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group which will then host your instance filesystems, if you want to use
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all Ganeti features. The volume group name Ganeti uses (by default) is
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``xenvg``.
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You can also use file-based storage only, without LVM, but this setup is
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not detailed in this document.
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While you can use an existing system, please note that the Ganeti
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installation is intrusive in terms of changes to the system
......
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live system are Xen and KVM. Supported Xen versions are: 3.0.3, 3.0.4
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and 3.1.  Supported KVM version are 72 and above.
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Please follow your distribution's recommended way to install and set
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up Xen, or install Xen from the upstream source, if you wish,
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following their manual. For KVM, make sure you have a KVM-enabled
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kernel and the KVM tools.
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Please follow your distribution's recommended way to install and set up
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Xen, or install Xen from the upstream source, if you wish, following
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their manual. For KVM, make sure you have a KVM-enabled kernel and the
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KVM tools.
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After installing Xen, you need to reboot into your new system. On some
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distributions this might involve configuring GRUB appropriately, whereas
......
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.. admonition:: Xen on Debian
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   Under Lenny or Etch you can install the relevant
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   ``xen-linux-system`` package, which will pull in both the
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   hypervisor and the relevant kernel. Also, if you are installing a
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   32-bit Lenny/Etch, you should install the ``libc6-xen`` package
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   (run ``apt-get install libc6-xen``).
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   Under Lenny or Etch you can install the relevant ``xen-linux-system``
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   package, which will pull in both the hypervisor and the relevant
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   kernel. Also, if you are installing a 32-bit Lenny/Etch, you should
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   install the ``libc6-xen`` package (run ``apt-get install
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   libc6-xen``).
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Xen settings
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~~~~~~~~~~~~
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It's recommended that dom0 is restricted to a low amount of memory
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(512MiB or 1GiB is reasonable) and that memory ballooning is disabled
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in the file ``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp`` by setting
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the value ``dom0-min-mem`` to 0,
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like this::
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(512MiB or 1GiB is reasonable) and that memory ballooning is disabled in
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the file ``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp`` by setting the value
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``dom0-min-mem`` to 0, like this::
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  (dom0-min-mem 0)
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For optimum performance when running both CPU and I/O intensive
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instances, it's also recommended that the dom0 is restricted to one
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CPU only, for example by booting with the kernel parameter ``nosmp``.
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instances, it's also recommended that the dom0 is restricted to one CPU
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only, for example by booting with the kernel parameter ``nosmp``.
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It is recommended that you disable xen's automatic save of virtual
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machines at system shutdown and subsequent restore of them at reboot.
......
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     ## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
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     # xenhopt=dom0_mem=1024M
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   and the ``xenkopt`` needs to include the ``nosmp`` option like
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   this::
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   and the ``xenkopt`` needs to include the ``nosmp`` option like this::
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     ## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
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     # xenkopt=nosmp
......
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     /sbin/update-grub
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If you want to run HVM instances too with Ganeti and want VNC access
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to the console of your instances, set the following two entries in
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If you want to run HVM instances too with Ganeti and want VNC access to
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the console of your instances, set the following two entries in
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``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``::
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  (vnc-listen '0.0.0.0') (vncpasswd '')
......
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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After you have installed Xen, you need to tell Ganeti exactly what
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kernel to use for the instances it will create. This is done by
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creating a symlink from your actual kernel to
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``/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU``, and one from your initrd
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to ``/boot/initrd-2.6-xenU``. Note that if you don't
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use an initrd for the domU kernel, you don't need
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to create the initrd symlink.
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kernel to use for the instances it will create. This is done by creating
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a symlink from your actual kernel to ``/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU``, and one
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from your initrd to ``/boot/initrd-2.6-xenU`` [#defkernel]_. Note that
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if you don't use an initrd for the domU kernel, you don't need to create
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the initrd symlink.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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Installing DRBD
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+++++++++++++++
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Recommended on all nodes: DRBD_ is required if you want to use the
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high availability (HA) features of Ganeti, but optional if you don't
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require HA or only run Ganeti on single-node clusters. You can upgrade
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a non-HA cluster to an HA one later, but you might need to export and
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Recommended on all nodes: DRBD_ is required if you want to use the high
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availability (HA) features of Ganeti, but optional if you don't require
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them or only run Ganeti on single-node clusters. You can upgrade a
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non-HA cluster to an HA one later, but you might need to export and
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re-import all your instances to take advantage of the new features.
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.. _DRBD: http://www.drbd.org/
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Supported DRBD versions: 8.0.x. It's recommended to have at least
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version 8.0.12.
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Supported DRBD versions: 8.0+. It's recommended to have at least version
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8.0.12. Note that for version 8.2 and newer it is needed to pass the
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``usermode_helper=/bin/true`` parameter to the module, either by
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configuring ``/etc/modules`` or when inserting it manually.
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Now the bad news: unless your distribution already provides it
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installing DRBD might involve recompiling your kernel or anyway
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fiddling with it. Hopefully at least the Xen-ified kernel source to
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start from will be provided.
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installing DRBD might involve recompiling your kernel or anyway fiddling
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with it. Hopefully at least the Xen-ified kernel source to start from
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will be provided (if you intend to use Xen).
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The good news is that you don't need to configure DRBD at all. Ganeti
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will do it for you for every instance you set up.  If you have the
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DRBD utils installed and the module in your kernel you're fine. Please
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check that your system is configured to load the module at every boot,
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and that it passes the following option to the module
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``minor_count=255``. This will allow you to use up to 128 instances
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per node (for most clusters 128 should be enough, though).
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will do it for you for every instance you set up.  If you have the DRBD
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utils installed and the module in your kernel you're fine. Please check
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that your system is configured to load the module at every boot, and
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that it passes the following option to the module:
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``minor_count=NUMBER``. We recommend that you use 128 as the value of
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the minor_count - this will allow you to use up to 64 instances in total
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per node (both primary and secondary, when using only one disk per
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instance). You can increase the number up to 255 if you need more
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instances on a node.
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.. admonition:: Debian
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   On Debian, you can just install (build) the DRBD 8.0.x module with
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   the following commands (make sure you are running the Xen kernel)::
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   On Debian, you can just install (build) the DRBD module with the
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   following commands, making sure you are running the target (Xen or
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   KVM) kernel::
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     apt-get install drbd8-source drbd8-utils
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     m-a update
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     m-a a-i drbd8
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     echo drbd minor_count=128 >> /etc/modules
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     echo drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true >> /etc/modules
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     depmod -a
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     modprobe drbd minor_count=128
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     modprobe drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true
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   It is also recommended that you comment out the default resources
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   in the ``/etc/drbd.conf`` file, so that the init script doesn't try
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   to configure any drbd devices. You can do this by prefixing all
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   It is also recommended that you comment out the default resources in
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   the ``/etc/drbd.conf`` file, so that the init script doesn't try to
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   configure any drbd devices. You can do this by prefixing all
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   *resource* lines in the file with the keyword *skip*, like this::
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     skip resource r0 {
......
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way to do things, and you'll definitely need to manually set it up under
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KVM.
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Beware that the default name Ganeti uses is ``xen-br0`` (which was
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used in Xen 2.0) while Xen 3.0 uses ``xenbr0`` by default. The default
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bridge your Ganeti cluster will use for new instances can be specified
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at cluster initialization time.
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Beware that the default name Ganeti uses is ``xen-br0`` (which was used
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in Xen 2.0) while Xen 3.0 uses ``xenbr0`` by default. The default bridge
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your Ganeti cluster will use for new instances can be specified at
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cluster initialization time.
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If you want to run in "routing mode" you need to specify that at cluster
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init time (using the --nicparam option), and then no bridge will be
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  bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
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  xen-br0         8000.0020fc1ed55d       no              eth0
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.. _configure-lvm-label:
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Configuring LVM
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+++++++++++++++
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......
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The volume group is required to be at least 20GiB.
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If you haven't configured your LVM volume group at install time you
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need to do it before trying to initialize the Ganeti cluster. This is
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done by formatting the devices/partitions you want to use for it and
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then adding them to the relevant volume group::
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If you haven't configured your LVM volume group at install time you need
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to do it before trying to initialize the Ganeti cluster. This is done by
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formatting the devices/partitions you want to use for it and then adding
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them to the relevant volume group::
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  pvcreate /dev/sda3
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  vgcreate xenvg /dev/sda3
......
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Optional: it is recommended to configure LVM not to scan the DRBD
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devices for physical volumes. This can be accomplished by editing
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``/etc/lvm/lvm.conf`` and adding the
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``/dev/drbd[0-9]+`` regular expression to the
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``filter`` variable, like this::
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``/etc/lvm/lvm.conf`` and adding the ``/dev/drbd[0-9]+`` regular
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expression to the ``filter`` variable, like this::
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  filter = ["r|/dev/cdrom|", "r|/dev/drbd[0-9]+|" ]
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Note that with Ganeti a helper script is provided - ``lvmstrap`` which
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will erase and configure as LVM any not in-use disk on your system. This
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is dangerous and it's recommended to read its ``--help`` output if you
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want to use it.
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Installing Ganeti
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+++++++++++++++++
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......
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  make install
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  mkdir /srv/ganeti/ /srv/ganeti/os /srv/ganeti/export
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You also need to copy the file
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``doc/examples/ganeti.initd`` from the source archive
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to ``/etc/init.d/ganeti`` and register it with your
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You also need to copy the file ``doc/examples/ganeti.initd`` from the
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source archive to ``/etc/init.d/ganeti`` and register it with your
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distribution's startup scripts, for example in Debian::
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  update-rc.d ganeti defaults 20 80
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In order to automatically restart failed instances, you need to setup
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a cron job run the *ganeti-watcher* command. A sample cron file is
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provided in the source at ``doc/examples/ganeti.cron`` and you can
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copy that (eventually altering the path) to ``/etc/cron.d/ganeti``.
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In order to automatically restart failed instances, you need to setup a
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cron job run the *ganeti-watcher* command. A sample cron file is
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provided in the source at ``doc/examples/ganeti.cron`` and you can copy
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that (eventually altering the path) to ``/etc/cron.d/ganeti``.
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What gets installed
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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The above ``make install`` invocation, or installing via your
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distribution mechanisms, will install on the system:
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- a set of python libraries under the *ganeti* namespace (depending on
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  the python version this can be located in either
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  ``lib/python-$ver/site-packages`` or various other locations)
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- a set of programs under ``/usr/local/sbin`` or ``/usr/sbin``
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- man pages for the above programs
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- a set of tools under the ``lib/ganeti/tools`` directory
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- an example iallocator script (see the admin guide for details) under
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  ``lib/ganeti/iallocators``
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- a cron job that is needed for cluster maintenance
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- an init script for automatic startup of Ganeti daemons
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- provided but not installed automatically by ``make install`` is a bash
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  completion script that hopefully will ease working with the many
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  cluster commands
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Installing the Operating System support packages
475 504
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
......
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To be able to install instances you need to have an Operating System
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installation script. An example OS that works under Debian and can
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install Debian and Ubuntu instace OSes is provided on the project web
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site.  Download it from the project page and follow the instructions
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in the ``README`` file.  Here is the installation procedure (replace
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0.7 with the latest version that is compatible with your ganeti
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version)::
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site.  Download it from the project page and follow the instructions in
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the ``README`` file.  Here is the installation procedure (replace 0.7
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with the latest version that is compatible with your ganeti version)::
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  cd /usr/local/src/
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  wget http://ganeti.googlecode.com/files/ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.7.tar.gz
......
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Initializing the cluster
512 540
++++++++++++++++++++++++
513 541

  
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**Mandatory** on one node per cluster.
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**Mandatory** once per cluster, on the first node.
515 543

  
516
The last step is to initialize the cluster. After you've repeated the
544
The last step is to initialize the cluster. After you have repeated the
517 545
above process on all of your nodes, choose one as the master, and
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execute::
519 547

  
520 548
  gnt-cluster init <CLUSTERNAME>
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The *CLUSTERNAME* is a hostname, which must be resolvable (e.g. it
523
must exist in DNS or in ``/etc/hosts``) by all the nodes in the
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cluster. You must choose a name different from any of the nodes names
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for a multi-node cluster. In general the best choice is to have a
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unique name for a cluster, even if it consists of only one machine, as
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you will be able to expand it later without any problems. Please note
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that the hostname used for this must resolve to an IP address reserved
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The *CLUSTERNAME* is a hostname, which must be resolvable (e.g. it must
551
exist in DNS or in ``/etc/hosts``) by all the nodes in the cluster. You
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must choose a name different from any of the nodes names for a
553
multi-node cluster. In general the best choice is to have a unique name
554
for a cluster, even if it consists of only one machine, as you will be
555
able to expand it later without any problems. Please note that the
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hostname used for this must resolve to an IP address reserved
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**exclusively** for this purpose, and cannot be the name of the first
530 558
(master) node.
531 559

  
......
534 562

  
535 563
If the bridge name you are using is not ``xen-br0``, use the *-b
536 564
<BRIDGENAME>* option to specify the bridge name. In this case, you
537
should also use the *--master-netdev <BRIDGENAME>* option with the
538
same BRIDGENAME argument.
565
should also use the *--master-netdev <BRIDGENAME>* option with the same
566
BRIDGENAME argument.
539 567

  
540 568
You can use a different name than ``xenvg`` for the volume group (but
541 569
note that the name must be identical on all nodes). In this case you
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need to specify it by passing the *-g <VGNAME>* option to
543
``gnt-cluster init``.
570
need to specify it by passing the *-g <VGNAME>* option to ``gnt-cluster
571
init``.
544 572

  
545
To set up the cluster as an HVM cluster, use the
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To set up the cluster as an Xen HVM cluster, use the
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``--enabled-hypervisors=xen-hvm`` option to enable the HVM hypervisor
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(you can also add ``,xen-pvm`` to enable the PVM one too). You will
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also need to create the VNC cluster password file
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(you can also add ``,xen-pvm`` to enable the PVM one too). You will also
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need to create the VNC cluster password file
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``/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password`` which contains one line with the
550 578
default VNC password for the cluster.
551 579

  
......
560 588

  
561 589
**Mandatory** for all the other nodes.
562 590

  
563
After you have initialized your cluster you need to join the other
564
nodes to it. You can do so by executing the following command on the
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master node::
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After you have initialized your cluster you need to join the other nodes
592
to it. You can do so by executing the following command on the master
593
node::
566 594

  
567 595
  gnt-node add <NODENAME>
568 596

  
......
577 605
additional interface for each node.  Use the *-s* option with
578 606
``gnt-cluster init`` and ``gnt-node add`` to specify the IP address of
579 607
this secondary interface to use for each node. Note that if you
580
specified this option at cluster setup time, you must afterwards use
581
it for every node add operation.
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specified this option at cluster setup time, you must afterwards use it
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for every node add operation.
582 610

  
583 611
Testing the setup
584 612
+++++++++++++++++
585 613

  
586
Execute the ``gnt-node list`` command to see all nodes in the
587
cluster::
614
Execute the ``gnt-node list`` command to see all nodes in the cluster::
588 615

  
589 616
  # gnt-node list
590 617
  Node              DTotal  DFree MTotal MNode MFree Pinst Sinst
591 618
  node1.example.com 197404 197404   2047  1896   125     0     0
592 619

  
593
Setting up and managing virtual instances
594
-----------------------------------------
595

  
596
Setting up virtual instances
597
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
598

  
599
This step shows how to setup a virtual instance with either
600
non-mirrored disks (``plain``) or with network mirrored disks
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(``drbd``).  All commands need to be executed on the Ganeti master
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node (the one on which ``gnt-cluster init`` was run).  Verify that the
603
OS scripts are present on all cluster nodes with ``gnt-os list``.
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605

  
606
To create a virtual instance, you need a hostname which is resolvable
607
(DNS or ``/etc/hosts`` on all nodes). The following command will
608
create a non-mirrored instance for you::
609

  
610
  gnt-instance add -t plain -s 1G -n node1 -o debootstrap instance1.example.com
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  * creating instance disks...
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  adding instance instance1.example.com to cluster config
613
   - INFO: Waiting for instance instance1.example.com to sync disks.
614
   - INFO: Instance instance1.example.com's disks are in sync.
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  creating os for instance instance1.example.com on node node1.example.com
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  * running the instance OS create scripts...
617
  * starting instance...
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619
The above instance will have no network interface enabled. You can
620
access it over the virtual console with ``gnt-instance console
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inst1``. There is no password for root. As this is a Debian instance,
622
you can modify the ``/etc/network/interfaces`` file to setup the
623
network interface (eth0 is the name of the interface provided to the
624
instance).
625

  
626
To create a network mirrored instance, change the argument to the *-t*
627
option from ``plain`` to ``drbd`` and specify the node on which the
628
mirror should reside with the second value of the *--node* option,
629
like this (note that the command output includes timestamps which have
630
been removed for clarity)::
631

  
632
  # gnt-instance add -t drbd -s 1G -n node1:node2 -o debootstrap instance2
633
  * creating instance disks...
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  adding instance instance2.example.com to cluster config
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   - INFO: Waiting for instance instance2.example.com to sync disks.
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   - INFO: - device disk/0: 35.50% done, 11 estimated seconds remaining
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   - INFO: - device disk/0: 100.00% done, 0 estimated seconds remaining
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   - INFO: Instance instance2.example.com's disks are in sync.
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  creating os for instance instance2.example.com on node node1.example.com
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  * running the instance OS create scripts...
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  * starting instance...
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Managing virtual instances
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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All commands need to be executed on the Ganeti master node.
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To access the console of an instance, run::
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  gnt-instance console INSTANCENAME
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The above shows a couple of things:
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To shutdown an instance, run::
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- The various Ganeti daemons can talk to each other
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- Ganeti can examine the storage of the node (DTotal/DFree)
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- Ganeti can talk to the selected hypervisor (MTotal/MNode/MFree)
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  gnt-instance shutdown INSTANCENAME
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Cluster burnin
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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To startup an instance, run::
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With Ganeti a tool called :command:`burnin` is provided that can test
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most of the Ganeti functionality. The tool is installed under the
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``lib/ganeti/tools`` directory (either under ``/usr`` or ``/usr/local``
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based on the installation method). See more details under
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:ref:`burnin-label`.
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  gnt-instance startup INSTANCENAME
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Further steps
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-------------
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To failover an instance to its secondary node (only possible with
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``drbd`` disk templates), run::
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You can now proceed either to the :doc:`admin`, or read the manpages of
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the various commands (:manpage:`ganeti(7)`, :manpage:`gnt-cluster(8)`,
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:manpage:`gnt-node(8)`, :manpage:`gnt-instance(8)`,
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:manpage:`gnt-job(8)`).
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  gnt-instance failover INSTANCENAME
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.. rubric:: Footnotes
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For more instance and cluster administration details, see the
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*Ganeti administrator's guide*.
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.. [#defkernel] The kernel and initrd paths can be changed at either
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   cluster level (which changes the default for all instances) or at
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   instance level.
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.. vim: set textwidth=72 :
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.. Local Variables:
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.. mode: rst
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.. fill-column: 72
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.. End:

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