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.RS 4 
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.TP 3 
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\(em 
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coefficient of variance of the percent of free memory


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standard deviation of the percent of free memory


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.TP 
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coefficient of variance of the percent of reserved memory


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standard deviation of the percent of reserved memory


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.TP 
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coefficient of variance of the percent of free disk


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standard deviation of the percent of free disk


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.TP 
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percentage of nodes failing N+1 check


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count of nodes failing N+1 check


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.TP 
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percentage of instances living (either as primary or secondary) on


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count of instances living (either as primary or secondary) on


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offline nodes 
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.TP 
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coefficent of variance of the ratio of virtualtophysical cpus (for 

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primary instaces of the node) 

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count of instances living (as primary) on offline nodes; this differs 

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from the above metric by helping failover of such instances in 2node 

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clusters 

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.TP 
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\(em 
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coefficients of variance of the dynamic load on the nodes, for cpus, 

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standard deviation of the ratio of virtualtophysical cpus (for 

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primary instances of the node) 

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.TP 

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\(em 

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standard deviation of the dynamic load on the nodes, for cpus, 

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memory, disk and network 
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.RE 
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N+1. And finally, the N+1 percentage helps guide the algorithm towards 
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eliminating N+1 failures, if possible. 
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Except for the N+1 failures and offline instances percentage, we use 

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the coefficient of variance since this brings the values into the same 

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unit so to speak, and with a restrict domain of values (between zero 

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and one). The percentage of N+1 failures, while also in this numeric 

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range, doesn't actually has the same meaning, but it has shown to work 

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well. 

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The other alternative, using for N+1 checks the coefficient of 

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variance of (N+1 fail=1, N+1 pass=0) across nodes could hint the 

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algorithm to make more N+1 failures if most nodes are N+1 fail 

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already. Since this (making N+1 failures) is not allowed by other 

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rules of the algorithm, so the N+1 checks would simply not work 

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anymore in this case. 

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The offline instances percentage (meaning the percentage of instances 

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living on offline nodes) will cause the algorithm to actively move 

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instances away from offline nodes. This, coupled with the restriction 

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on placement given by offline nodes, will cause evacuation of such 

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nodes. 

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Except for the N+1 failures and offline instances counts, we use the 

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standard deviation since when used with values within a fixed range 

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(we use percents expressed as values between zero and one) it gives 

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consistent results across all metrics (there are some small issues 

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related to different means, but it works generally well). The 'count' 

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type values will have higher score and thus will matter more for 

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balancing; thus these are better for hard constraints (like evacuating 

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nodes and fixing N+1 failures). For example, the offline instances 

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count (i.e. the number of instances living on offline nodes) will 

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cause the algorithm to actively move instances away from offline 

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nodes. This, coupled with the restriction on placement given by 

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offline nodes, will cause evacuation of such nodes. 

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The dynamic load values need to be read from an external file (Ganeti 
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doesn't supply them), and are computed for each node as: sum of 
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values, and feed that via the \fIU\fR option for all instances (and 
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keep the other metrics as one). For the algorithm to work, all that is 
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needed is that the values are consistent for a metric across all 
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instances (e.g. all instances use cpu% to report cpu usage, but they 

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could represent network bandwith in Gbps). Note that it's recommended 

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to not have zero as the load value for any instance metric since then 

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secondary instances are not well balanced. 

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instances (e.g. all instances use cpu% to report cpu usage, and not 

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something related to number of CPU seconds used if the CPUs are 

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different), and that they are normalised to between zero and one. Note 

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that it's recommended to not have zero as the load value for any 

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instance metric since then secondary instances are not well balanced. 

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On a perfectly balanced cluster (all nodes the same size, all 
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instances the same size and spread across the nodes equally), the 
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.SS EXCLUSION TAGS 
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The exclusion tags mecanism is designed to prevent instances which run


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the same workload (e.g. two DNS servers) to land on the same node, 

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The exclusion tags mechanism is designed to prevent instances which


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run the same workload (e.g. two DNS servers) to land on the same node,


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which would make the respective node a SPOF for the given service. 
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It works by tagging instances with certain tags and then building 
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